we investigate a role for vision in skilled guitar playing, focusing on visual contributions to the representation of basic first-position root chords (C, A, G, E, D). Experiment 1 involved naming or playing guitar chords displayed in different visual formats (letter, photograph, chart) and orientations. Experiment 2 employed a Stroop-like design, involving identification of the visual or auditory dimension for congruent or incongruent pairs of chord photographs and sounds. Our results demonstrate that visual representations of guitar chords are orientation sensitive and associated with their corresponding actions and sounds. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the multimodal nature of musical skill, and consider how the format of visual information can impact acquisition of musical skill.

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