THE RELATION BETWEEN MUSIC and motion has been a topic of much theoretical and empirical research. An important contribution is made by a family of computational theories, so-called kinematic models, that propose an explicit relation between the laws of physical motion in the real world and expressive timing in music performance. However, kinematic models predict that expressive timing is independent of (a) the number of events, (b) the rhythmic structure, and (c) the overall tempo of the performance. These factors have no effect on the predicted shape of a ritardando. Computer simulations of a number of rhythm perception models show, however, a large effect of these structural and temporal factors. They are therefore proposed as a perception-based alternative to the kinematic approach.

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