Fundamental problems and dilemmas for the study of tonality induction are reviewed. I focus on two different, although related types of research impediments. The first is the fuzziness of the key notion "tonality" itself, which leads to divergent conceptualizations of tonality induction, such as "key finding," "tonal induction," "tonal center perception," and "tonal feeling." I argue that the fuzziness is largely due to the lack of welldefined historical or otherwise categorical boundaries of "Western tonal music." The second impediment arises from various dualities in music, notably tone versus note representations, tonal versus intervallic representations, horizontal ("leading voice") cues for tonality induction versus vertical ones ("fundamentals"), and tonal versus temporal tonality induction cues. (Dis) advantages of various interpretations of tonality induction and of solutions of the dualities in question are considered. A few recommendations for reconciliation between currently divergent theoretical approaches to tonality induction are suggested.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Helmholtz (1863/1954)
Parncutt (1988)
2
Mursell (1937/1971, chapter 4, p. 149 ff.)
3
(Vos & Verkaart, 1999)

References

References
Anderson, N. D. (1992). Aspects of early major-minor tonality. Unpublished doctoral dis- sertation. Ohio State University, Columbus.
Aristotle. (1957). On perception and the percepts. (Essay categorized in Parva naturalia [Greek text plus English transi. W. S. Hett]). London: W. Heinemann Ltd. (Original work published circa 350 bce)
Attneave, h (1959). Applications of information theory to psychology. New York: Holt.
Auhagen, W. (1994). Experimented untersuchungen zur auditwen lonalitatsbestimmung in Melodien. Kassel: Bosse.
Bharucha, J. J. (1987). Music cognition and perceptual facilitation: A connectionist frame- work. Music Perception, 5, 1-30.
Bharucha, J. J., & Todd, M. P. (1991). Modeling the perception of tonal structure with neural nets. In P. M. Todd & D. G. Loy (Eds.), Music and connectionism (pp. 128-138). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Brown, H. (1988). The interplay of set content and temporal content in a functional theory of tonality perception. Music Perception, 5, 219-250.
Brown, H., Butler, R., & Jones, M. R. (1994). Musical and temporal influences on key discovery. Music Perception, 11, 371-407.
Browne, R. (1981). Tonal implications of the diatonic set. In Theory Only, 5, 3-21.
Butler, D. (1990). A study of event hierarchies in tonal and post-tonal music. Music Percep- tion, 18,4-17.
Cohen, A. J. (1991). Tonality and perception: Musical scales primed by excerpts from The Well-Tempered Clavier of J. S. Bach. Psychological Research, S3, 305-414.
Cohen, A. (1994). Musical training and pitch schemata: Tonal inferences in micro-tonal contexts. In: Proceedings of the third International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (pp. 81-82). Liège, Belgium: ICMPC.
Cuddy, L., &; Thompson, W. (1992). Asymmetry of perceived key movement in choral sequences. Psychological Research, 54, 51-59.
Dahlhaus, C. (1980). "Tonality." In S. Sadie (Ed.), The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th éd., Vol. 19, pp. 51-55).
Desain, P., Honing, H., Vanthienen, H., & Windsor, L. (1998). Computer modeling of music cognition: problem or solution? Music Perception, 16, 151-166.
Eberlein, R. (1994). Die Entstehung der tonalen Klangsyntax [The origin of tonal syntax]. Kassel: Baerenreiter.
Eberlein, R., & Fricke, J. (1992). Kadenzwahrnehmung und Kadenzgeschichte: Ein Beitrag zu einer Grammatika der Musik [Perception and history of cadences: Contributions to a grammar of music]. Frankfurt/M.: P. Lang.
Helmholtz, H. von (1954). Die Lehre der Tonempfindungen [On the sensations of tone]. Frankfurt: Minerva Verlag. (Original work published 1863)
Huron, D. (1989). Voice denumerability in polyphonic music of homogeneous timbres. Music Perception, 6, 361-382.
Huron, D., & Parncutt, R. (1993). An improved model of tonality perception incorporating pitch salience and echoic memory. Psychomusicology, 12, 152-169.
Krumhansl, C. (1990). Cognitive foundations of musical pitch. New York: Oxford Univer- sity Press.
Léman, M. (1994). Schema-based tonal center recognition of musical signals. Journal of New Music Research, 23, 169-205.
Léman, M. (1995). Music and schema theory: Cognitive foundations of systematic musicol- ogy. Berlin: Springer.
Léman, M. (2000). An auditory model of the role of short-term memory in probe-tone ratings. Music Perception, 17, 481-509.
Lerdahl, E, &c Jackendoff, R. (1983). A generative theory of tonal music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Longuet-Higgins, H. C. (1987). Mental processes: Part II, Music (pp. 57-188). London: MIT Press.
Longuet-Higgins, H. C, ôc Lee, C. S. (1984). The rhythmic interpretation of monophonie music. Music Perception. 1, 424-441.
Longuet-Higgins, H. C, & Steedman, M. J. (1971). On interpreting Bach. In B. Meltzer & D. Michie (Eds.), Machine intelligence (Vol. 6). Edinburgh: EUR
McCabe, S. L., & Denham, M. J. (1997). A model of auditory streaming. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101, 1611-1621.
Mursell, J. L. (1971). The psychology of music. New York: Greenwood Press. (Original work published 1937)
Parncutt, R. (1988). Revision of Terhardt's psychoacoustical model of the root(s) of a mu- sical chord. Music Perception, 6, 65-94.
Parncutt, R. (1998). Listening to music in the real world? Journal of New Music Research, 27, 380-408.
Popper, K. R. (1968). Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. New York: Harper & Row.
Preusser, D., Garner, W. R., & Gottwald, R. L. (1970). Response uncertainty and percep- tual difficulty of auditory temporal patterns. American Journal of Psychology, 83, 151- 170.
Povel, D. J. (1997, June). Processes in on-line music perception. Proceedings of the Third Triennial ESCOM Conference, Uppsala, June 7-12 (pp. 251-256). Uppsala, Sweden: ESCOM.
Rowe, R. (1993). Interactive music systems: Machine listening and composing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Shannon, C. E. (1951). Prediction and entropy of printed English. Bell Systems Technology Journal, 30, 50-64.
Shmulevich, I., & Yli-Harja, O. (2000). Localized key finding: Algorithms and applica- tions. Music Perception, 17, 531-544.
Temperley, D. (1999). A preference rule system for contrapuntal analysis (abstract). In: Abstracts of the SMPC99 (p. 50). Evanston, IL: Society for Music Perception and Cogni- tion.
Thomson, W. (1983). Functional ambiguity in musical structures. Music Perception, 1, 3-27.
Thomson, W. (1999). Tonality in music. San Marino, CA: Everett Books.
Thompson, W. E, & Cuddy, L. (1989). Sensitivity to key change in chorale sequences: A comparison of single voices and four- voice harmony. Music Perception, 7, 151-168.
Thompson, W. E, & Cuddy, L. (1992). Perceived key-movement in four-voice harmony and single voices. Music Perception, 9, 427-438.
Tillmann, B., Bigand, E., & Madurell, F. (1998). Local vs. global processing of harmonic cadences in the solution of musical puzzles. Psychological Research, 61, 157-175.
Van Egmond, R., & Butler, R. (1997). Diatonic connotations of pitch-class sets. Music Perception, IS, 1-31.
Vos, P. G. (1973). Waarneming van metrische toonreeksen [Perception of metrical tone sequences]. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Universitàt Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Vos, P. G. (1977). Temporal duration factors in the perception of auditory rhythmic pat- terns. Scientific Aesthetics, 1, 183-199.
Vos, P. G. (1999). Key implications of ascending fourth and descending fifth openings. Psychology of Music, 27, 4-17.
Vos, P. G., Van Dijk, A., & Schomaker, L. (1994). Melodic cues for metre. Perception, 23, 965-975.
Vos, P. G., & Verkaart, P. P. (1999). Mode inference in melodies. Music Perception, 17, 223-239.
Vos, P. G., & Van Geenen, E. W. (1996). A parallel-processing key-finding model. Music Perception, 14, 185-223.
Wertheimer, M. (1923). Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt, I. Psychologische Forschung, 4, 301-350.
West, R. J., & Fryer, R. (1990). Ratings of suitability of probe tones as tonics after random orderings of notes of the diatonic scale. Music Perception, 7, 253-258.
Woodrow, H. (1909). A quantitative study of rhythm. Archives of Psychology, 14, 1-66.
This content is only available via PDF.