This study of Finnish spiritual folk hymns combined three approaches to understanding melodic expectation. The first approach was a statistical style analysis of a representative corpus of 18 hymns, which determined the relative frequencies of tone onsets and two- and three-tone transitions. The second approach was a behavioral experiment in which listeners, either familiar (experts) or unfamiliar (nonexperts) with the hymns, made judgments about melodic continuations. The third approach simulated melodic expectation with neural network models of the self-organizing map (SOM) type (Kohonen, 1997). One model was trained on a corpus of Finnish folk songs and Lutheran hymns (Finnish SOM), while another was trained with the hymn contexts used in the experiment with the correct continuation tone (Hymn SOM). The three approaches converged on the following conclusions: (1) Listeners appear to be sensitive to the distributions of tones and tone transitions in music, (2) The nonexperts' responses more strongly reflected the general distribution of tones, whereas the experts' responses more strongly reflected the tone transitions and the correct continuations, (3) The SOMs produced results similar to listeners and also appeared sensitive to the distributions of tones and tone transitions, (4) The Hymn SOM correlated more strongly with the experts' judgments than the Finnish SOM, and (5) the principles of the implication-realization model (Narmour, 1990) were weighted similarly by the behavioral data and the Hymn SOM. /// Tässä suomalaisia hengellisiä kansansävelmiä käsittelevässä tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään melodisia odotuksia kolmen tutkimusmenetelmän avulla. Ensimmäinen menetelmä oli kyseistä tyyliä edustavien 18 sävelmän tilastollinen analyysi, jossa määritelteltiin sävelkorkeuksien sekä kahden ja kolmen sävelen siirtymien tilastolliset jakaumat. Toinen menetelmä oli behavioraalinen koe, jossa kuulijat arvioivat sävelmien jatkoja. Kuulijat jakaantuivat kahteen ryhmään: sävelmät tunteviin (asiantuntijoihin) ja sävelmiä tuntemattomiin (ei-asiantuntijoihin). Kolmannessa menetelmässä simuloitiin melodisia odotuksia itsejärjestäytyvään karttaan (Kohonen, 1997) perustuvalla keinotekoisella hermoverkkomallilla. Ensimmäiselle mallille opetettiin joukko suomalaisia kansanlauluja ja luterilaisia virsiä (suomalainen verkko), toiselle kokeessa käytettyjä hengellisiä kansansävelmiä (hengellinen verkko). Käytetyt menetelmät tuottivat yhteneviä tuloksia ja antoivat aihetta seuraaviin johtopäätöksiin: (1) kuulijat näyttävät olevan vastaanottavaisia musiikin säveljakaumille ja sävelsiirtymille, (2) ei-asiantuntijoiden vastaukset noudattivat enemmän sävelten yleistä jakaumaa, kun taas asiantuntijoiden vastaukset heijastivat enemmän sävelsiirtymiä ja sävelmien oikeita jatkoja, (3) hermoverkot tuottivat tuloksia, jotka olivat samankaltaisia kuulijoiden arvioiden kanssa ja jotka noudattivat sävelten ja sävelsiirtymien jakaumia, (4) hengellisen verkon tulokset korreloivat suomalaisen verkon tuloksia voimakkaammin asiantuntijoiden arvioiden kanssa, ja (5) behavioraaliset tulokset ja hengellinen verkko painottavat implikaatio-realisaatio-mallin (Narmour, 1990) periaatteita samalla tavalla.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
2
(Huron, 1994)
http://www.jyu.fi/~tjarvine.
3
Järvinen, 1995, 1997
6
The Lutheran hymns were Enkeli taivaan (Angel of heaven), Martin Luther, 1535 (hymn book number 21, as designated by the Finnish Evangelic Lutheran church in 1986), Jumala ompi linnamme (God is our fortress), Martin Luther, 1528 (hymn book number 170), Lienenkö outo (Am I a stranger?), German, 1675 (hymn book number 281),
Vakaana Herran teitä (Steady on the Lord's path), Johan Olof Wallin, 1816 (hymn book number 393).
The Finnish folk songs were Minä olen Härmän Kankaanpäästä (I am from Kankaanpää, Härmä),
Ol' kaunis kesäilta (It was a beautiful summer evening), Aamulla varhain (Early in the morning), and Taivas on sininen ja valkoinen

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