A great deal of the motion perceived in music is apparent rather than real. On the piano, for example, no continuous movement in frequency occurs between two sequentially sounded tones. Though a listener may perceive a movement from the first tone to the second, each tone merely begins and ends at its stationary position on the frequency continuum. Recent advances in the modeling of apparent- motion effects in vision provide a starting point for the modeling of the strong apparent- motion effects in music. An adaptation of the Grossberg- Rudd model of apparent motion in vision, when given input representing the strengths of pitch sensations positioned along a one- dimensional frequency continuum, can simulate important musical phenomena of auditory stream segregation, van Noorden's melodic- fission/ temporal- coherence boundaries, various Gestalt effects, aspects of dynamic attending, and Narmour's predicted categorical distinction between musical intervals implying a continuation and those implying a reversal of direction.


Bharucha, J. J. Music cognition and perceptual facilitation: A connectionist framework. Music Perception, 1987, 5, 1-30.
Bregman, A. S. Auditory scene analysis: The perceptual organization of sound. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1990.
Bregman, A. S., & Campbell, J. Primary auditory stream segregation and perception of order in rapid sequences of tone, journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 89, 244-249.
Burt, P., & Sperling, G. Time, distance, and feature trade-offs in visual apparent motion. Psychological Review, 1981, 88, 171-195.
Deutsch, D., & Feroe, J. The internal representation of pitch sequences in tonal music. Psychological Review, 1981, 88, 503-522.
Exner, S. Über das Sehen von Bewegungen und die Théorie des zusammengesetzten Auges. Sitzunzsberichte: Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, 1875, 72, 156-190.
Grossberg, S. Apparent motion. Unpublished manuscript, 1977.
Grossberg, S., & Rudd, M. E. A neural architecture for visual motion perception: Group and element apparent motion. Neural Networks, 1989, 2, 421-450.
Huron, D. Voice denumerability in polyphonic music of homogeneous timbres. Music Perception, 1989, 6, 361-382.
Huron, D. A derivation of the rules of voice-leading from perceptual principles. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Los Angeles, 1992.
Jones, M. R., & Boltz, M. Dynamic attending and responses to time. Psychological Review, 1989,96,459-491.
Körte, A. Kinematoskopische Untersuchungen. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 1915, 72, 194-296.
Kolers, P. A. Aspects of motion perception. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1972.
Marr, D. Vision. San Francisco: Freeman, 1982.
Marr, D., & Ullman, S. Directional selectivity and its use in early visual processing. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B), 1981, 211, 151-180.
Meyer, L. B. Emotion and meaning in music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.
Meyer, L. B. Explaining music: Essays and explorations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.
Miller, G. A., & Heise, G. A. The trill threshold. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1950, 22, 637-638.
Narmour, E. The analysis and cognition of basic melodic structures: The implication- realization model. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
Noorden, L. van. Temporal coherence in the perception of tone sequences. Eindhoven: Druk vam Voorschoten, 1975.
Prout, E. Harmony: Its theory and practice, 17th ed., rev. London: Aueener, c1903.
Seibert, M., & Waxman, A. M. Spreading activation layers, visual saccades, and invari- ant representations for neural pattern recognitions systems. Neural Networks, 1989, 2, 9-27.
Sessions, R. Harmonic practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace &; World, 1951.
Simon, H. A., & Sumner, R. K. Pattern in music. In B. Kleinmuntz (Ed.), Formal representa- tion of human judgment. New York: Wiley, 1968.
Terhardt, E. Pitch, consonance and harmony. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1974, 55. 1061-1069.
Terhardt, E. The concept of musical consonance: A link between music and psy- choacoustics. Music Perception, 1984, 1, 276-295.
Ternus, J. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über phänomenale Identität. Psychologische Forschung, 1926, 7, 81-136 [abstracted and trans, in part in W. D. Ellis (Ed.), A sourcebook of Gestalt psychology. New York: Humanities Press, 1950].
Wertheimer, M. Experimentelle Studien über das Sehen von Bewegung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 1912, 61, 161-265 [trans, in part in T. Shipley (Ed.), Classics in psychol- ogy. New York: Philosophical Library, 1961].
Wertheimer, M. Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt, II. Psychologische Forschung, 1923, 4, 301-350 [abstracted and trans, in part in W. D. Ellis (Ed.), A sourcebook of Gestalt psychology. New York: Humanities Press, 1950].
Wright, J. K. Auditory object perception: Counterpoint in a new context. Unpublished masters thesis. Montreal: Faculty of Music, McGill University, 1986.
Zuckerkandl, V. Sound and symbol: Music and the external world (W. Trask, Trans.). New York: Pantheon Books, c1956.
This content is only available via PDF.