Previous studies have demonstrated that musical tempo memory, as the ability to recall a musical tempo without an external reference, is highly accurate. However, little is known about the stability of tempo memory for different genres and reproduction methods over time, and the factors that may influence them. In two longitudinal studies conducted over a 15-day period, we examined the accuracy and stability of musical tempo memory in individuals with different levels of music training. Specifically, we measured tempo memory every three days, and explored various factors including physiological arousal, musical aptitude, and current mood. In Study 1 (N = 111), participants reproduced the tempos of two well-known pieces (one classical and one pop piece) from memory by isochronous tapping, while in Study 2 (N = 61), participants actively performed a self-selected piece of music. Our results suggest that musical tempo memory is generally highly accurate and stable, with even greater accuracy and stability when participants played an instrument to reproduce the tempo. Furthermore, we found no evidence for an effect of arousal and mood. The impact of musical expertise, however, was mixed: individuals with higher expertise performed better in Study 1 but with no statistically significant difference in Study 2.

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