This paper presents a critical analysis of ethical and methodological issues within cross-cultural music science research, including issues around community based research, participation, and data sovereignty. Although such issues have long been discussed in social science fields including anthropology and ethnomusicology, psychology and music cognition are only beginning to take them into serious consideration. This paper aims to fill that gap in the literature, and draw attention to the necessity of critically considering how implicit cultural biases and pure positivist approaches can mar scientific investigations of music, especially in a cross-cultural context. We focus initially on two previous papers (Jacoby et al., 2020; Savage et al., 2021) before broadening our discussion to critique and provide alternatives to scientific approaches that support assimilation, extractvism, and universalism. We then discuss methodological considerations around cross-cultural research ethics, data ownership, and open science and reproducibility. Throughout our critique, we offer many personal recommendations to cross-cultural music researchers, and suggest a few larger systemic changes.

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