the visual component of music performance as experienced in a live concert is of central importance for the appreciation of music performance. However, up until now the influence of the visual component on the evaluation of music performance has remained unquantified in terms of effect size estimations. Based on a meta-analysis of 15 aggregated studies on audio-visual music perception (total N = 1,298), we calculated the average effect size of the visual component in music performance appreciation by subtracting ratings for the audio-only condition from those for the audio-visual condition. The outcome focus was on evaluation ratings such as liking, expressiveness, or overall quality of musical performances. For the first time, this study reveals an average medium effect size of 0.51 standard deviations — Cohen's d; 95% CI (0.42, 0.59) — for the visual component. Consequences for models of intermodal music perception and experimental planning are addressed.

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