STOESZ, JAKOBSON, KILGOUR, AND LEWYCKY (2007) and Jakobson, Lewycky,Kilgour, and Stoesz (2008) examined whether music training is associated with nonmusical abilities. They concluded that their results provided evidence of "specific" associations between music training and local-processing abilities (Stoesz et al., 2007), and between music training and memory for verbal and visual stimuli (Jakobson et al., 2008). Closer inspection of their methods, consideration of the available literature, and a reanalysis of previous data reveal that these conclusions are debatable.Moreover, the causal direction of the observed associations could go either or both ways.

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