Two recent reviews in Music Perception address potential cognitive adaptations for music. In this commentary I sketch a number of connections between issues raised in these reviews and the biology of music more generally. Potential perceptual and cognitive specializations for music are distinguished from those of production, the latter supplying a key adaptation for music in the form of vocal learning. The generative nature of human music is emphasized, as is the potential relevance of nonlinear resonance phenomena in audition and the shaping power of the “learner bottle-neck” in cultural transmission for our understanding of the structural content of extant musical forms.

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