We measured modulations of neuroelectric gamma-band activity (GBA) as subjects listened to isochronous pure-tone sequences with embedded temporal perturbations. Perturbations occurred every 6�10 tones, and at the locus of the perturbation, tones occurred early, on time, or late. In the absence of perturbations, induced (non�phase-locked) GBA reached maximum power simultaneously with the occurrence of tone onsets, whereas evoked (phase-locked) GBA peaks were observed after onsets. During late perturbation trials, peaks in induced activity tended to precede tone onsets, and during early perturbation trials, induced peaks followed tone onsets. Induced peaks returned to synchrony after both types of perturbations. Early tones resulted in a marked increase in evoked GBA power at the locus of the perturbation. The latency of evoked GBA relative to tone onset, as well as some other features of the response, depended asymmetrically on the direction of the perturbation. The current results provide evidence for the synchronization of GBA during the perception of auditory rhythms, thus supporting the role of GBA in temporal expectancy.

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