A critical and comparative review of the various methods currently used in experimental studies of tonality induction is presented. First, we deal with pitfalls in the selection of subjects, specifically focusing on the issue of contrasting more-experienced and less-experienced listeners. Next, we discuss some dilemmas with respect to the selection of stimuli. In particular, we compare the (dis) advantages of using real music stimuli with the (dis) advantages of artificial stimuli, distinguishing in the latter category between prototypical stimuli (e.g., chords or scale fragments) and tonally complex or even polytonal stimuli. Finally, we consider the (dis) advantages of various possible experimental paradigms, notably the production of a tonic and tonal center, the probe-tone paradigm, and tonality rating. For each of the three methodological subdomains, we propose recommendations for improvement.

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