We examined, by historical and empirical means, relations among text (positive, negative), mode (Ionian, Phrygian), and medium (organ, vocal) in settings of a popular Christian melody from the baroque era. A descriptive analysis of 51 representative settings indicated that baroque composers tended to link Ionian settings of the melody to a "salvation" text and Phrygian settings to a "condemnation" text. They also set vocal pieces more frequently in the Ionian mode and organ pieces in the Phrygian mode. A series of experiments confirmed that contemporary adult and child listeners linked reward texts to the Ionian mode and punishment texts to the Phrygian mode, with the internal cadence structure of the settings affecting such links. Moreover, adult listeners associated these texts differentially with organ and vocal settings.

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