Retraction Notice To: Khuê Đỗ Diệu; Japanese “Blood” in the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese Border War: Isao Takano and Vietnam. Journal of Vietnamese Studies 1 November 2021; 16 (4): 36–67. doi:

This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief in consultation with the journal’s editorial team. The editors determined post-publication that the article contains unattributed material, including both verbatim and paraphrased passages, from numerous sources.

As part of the journal’s submission requirements, this paper was refereed anonymously. Apologies to readers of the journal that these issues were not detected during the peer review process.

This decision has been informed by University of California Press's Statement on Publication Ethics and the COPE guidelines on retractions. The retracted article will remain online to maintain the scholarly record, but it will be digitally watermarked on each page as “Retracted”.

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