During the eighteenth century, the Vietnamese government relied on local chieftains to govern its northern uplands, including the Sino-Vietnamese border region. In Lạng Sơn Province—an intermediary point for diplomatic documents traveling from the Lê-Trịnh government to the Qing—the government constructed a documentary system that gave local chieftains considerable political responsibility. Under this system, local chieftains were responsible for administering tax collection and some forms of military service, researching the titles and positions of Qing officials, purchasing Qing calendars, and forwarding official documents. Thus, these local chieftains played important roles in eighteenth-century Sino-Vietnamese relations and politics.
The Lê-Trịnh Government’s Documentary Practices and Relationship with the Qing during the Eighteenth Century: The Roles of Local Chieftains in Lạng Sơn Province
Kazuki Yoshikawa is an Assistant Professor at Kansai University. This article was originally presented at the international conference “2019 Zhongyang yanjiuyuan Ming-Qing yanjiu guoji xueshu yantaohui” at Academia Sinica, Taipei, August 29, 2019.
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Kazuki Yoshikawa; The Lê-Trịnh Government’s Documentary Practices and Relationship with the Qing during the Eighteenth Century: The Roles of Local Chieftains in Lạng Sơn Province. Journal of Vietnamese Studies 1 May 2021; 16 (2): 1–29. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/vs.2021.16.2.1
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