Many music scholars have theorized about musical agency, drawing perspectives from fields including cognition, semiotics, and musical meaning. Few, however, have explored musical agency in relation to ludic agency, a gap I hope to fill here. Through this article I will explore how the multimodal nature of Crypt of the NecroDancer influences the player's experience. I will first outline several theories of agency. Then I will analyze of Crypt of the NecroDancer and its various virtual and actual agencies, including narrative, music and sound, character, and virtual environment. I will use these analyses within the framework of theories of agency in order to support the hypothesis that the player identifies with a character in the game and constructs a relationship in which they virtually coexperience the game with the avatar. This relationship is a bipartite, distributed agent that I call the “avatar/player.”

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