In light of evidence for substantial alterations to the forms and spatial configurations of the Parthenon during the construction process, John R. Senseney interrogates the origins of the celebrated Ionic frieze, with its continuous figural procession sculpted by the workshop of Pheidias, in The Architectural Origins of the Parthenon Frieze. Emphasizing ancient planning methods, Senseney argues that the Parthenon's builders settled on an Ionic frieze in response to the rare decision to include prostyle porches. To contend with formal complexities, the builders engaged in exploratory design within the construction of the east peristyle, east porch, and pronaos, the results of which then guided construction elsewhere in the superstructure. Comparative analysis supports Senseney's argument that the Ionic form of the Parthenon frieze arose not from the sculptural program but rather in response to issues of alignment within the pronaos and as part of a fluid process of modeling that coalesced in an aesthetic focused on formal continuity and integration.
In 3-D Digital Modeling and Giuliano da Sangallo's Designs for Santa Maria delle Carceri in Prato, Sabine Frommel, Marco Gaiani, and Simone Garagnani examine one of the most representative central-plan churches of Renaissance Italy. Their study is based on the examination of an original drawing by the architect of Santa Maria delle Carceri, Giuliano da Sangallo, as well as several recent technical surveys of the existing building. Introducing a specific methodology based on documents, reference studies, and digital three-dimensional models, the authors reconstruct Sangallo's design methods by comparing the volume and proportions of the church as documented in the drawing against the building as it stands today. By making use of a digital reconstruction of the building generated through a series of 3-D models, they are able to shed light on Sangallo's original design concepts as they were applied to the church prior to subsequent alterations.
During the mid-twentieth century, transatlantic exchanges between architects often occurred in the context of Cold War politics. While many of these exchanges involved overt manifestations of state-sponsored ideologies, others, such as Richard Neutra's participation in the 1956 competition to design U.S. Air Force housing in Spain, demonstrated the personal ambitions of the architects involved more than they did any government agendas. Neutra's approach to the competition, in which he collaborated with Spanish architects, reveals his predisposition to commodify his work for an international market; in turn, the Spaniards were eager to appropriate and consume Neutra's ideas. In Richard Neutra in Spain: Consumerism, Competition, and U.S. Air Force Housing, Brett Tippey analyzes the politics surrounding the competition, the nature of the collaborative relationship between Neutra and the Spaniards, the details of the (unbuilt) designs, and the enduring impact of Neutra's intervention on Spanish architecture. The resources for this study include Neutra's published texts, Spanish professional journals, and the Richard and Dion Neutra Papers (UCLA), as well as the original dossier Neutra submitted to the competition jury.
In 1971, the British pharmaceuticals corporation Burroughs Wellcome held an elaborate celebration on both sides of the Atlantic to mark the upcoming opening of its new headquarters in Research Triangle Park near Durham, North Carolina (the building opened officially in April 1972). Designed by architect Paul Rudolph, the new headquarters aimed to invoke southern cultural and architectural traditions while also conveying the energy and excitement of modern science. As Vyta Pivo demonstrates in “PhDs Among the Possums”: Paul Rudolph's Burroughs Wellcome Headquarters and the Transformation of Laboratory Architecture, while Rudolph's use of the structural A-frame as an organizing matrix created spaces that inspired awe and mystery, his design also generated practical challenges in terms of both use and maintenance. Although Rudolph's adoption of industrial construction techniques and unproven experimental materials was intended to expedite the building process and lower costs, it nearly jeopardized the entire project. By reconstructing the historical context of the Burroughs Wellcome Headquarters, Pivo advances our understanding of the fundamental goals and challenges involved in the development of new suburban corporate headquarters and laboratory building typologies.
Brazilian architect João Batista Vilanova Artigas (1915–85) played a fundamental role in the development of the architectural profession in mid-twentieth-century São Paulo. Artigas, who served as a professor at the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of São Paulo (FAU-USP) from the time of its foundation, began in the 1950s to explore new structural solutions using exposed concrete construction. His innovative architectural work opened up new directions for a group of talented Brazilian architects known as the Paulista School. In A Building without Doors: Vilanova Artigas and the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism Building at the University of São Paulo, Décio Otoni de Almeida starts with an analysis of the historiography of modern Brazilian architecture and then proposes a new reading of Artigas's design for the FAU-USP Building (1961–69), his masterwork, situating it inside the broader panorama of the Paulista School.