Less than two decades after Sears, Roebuck-once the nation's largest mail-order business-entered the retailing business in 1924, it had gained prominence in that field nearly equal to that of its competitors. This unprecedented rate of expansion was marked by innovations in merchandising and store design. Sears was a pioneer in creating department stores that catered to men as well as women, that eschewed style in favor of practicality in merchandise, and that allowed customers to select goods without the aid of a clerk. The buildings likewise broke from convention. They were generally oriented to motorists-set apart from existing business districts amid residential areas occupied by their target audience; had ample, free, off-street parking; and communicated a clear corporate identity. In the 1930s, the company designed fully air-conditioned, "windowless" stores whose layout was driven wholly by merchandising concerns. In all these respects, Sears set important precedents that were widely followed by other major retailers after World War II.

Notes

Notes
1
"Sears, Roebuck Co.," Women's Wear Daily (hereafter WWD), 19 Dec. 1924, 32
"Sears, Roebuck Not," WWD, 24 Dec. 1924, 32.
"Sears Roebuck Phila.," WWD, 21 July 1920, 1, 7
"Sears, Roebuck Open," WWD, 18 Oct. 1920, 1, 23
George C. Nimmons, "The Eastern Store of Sears, Roebuck & Company at Philadelphia," Architectural Record 50 (Aug. 1921), 118-32.
2
"Sears, Roebuck Plan," WWD, 17 Dec. 1924, 1
"Sears-Roebuck Retail," WWD, 18 Dec. 1924, 32.
3
"Sears-Roebuck Speed," WWD, 10 Jan. 1925, 23
"Sears, Roebuck Retail," WWD, 2 Feb. 1925, 55-56
"Sears-Roebuck Retail Stores Planned to Increase Mail Order Sales," Sales Management 8 (21 Mar. 1925), 454.
5
"Sears-Roebuck in Peak Expansion," Economist (Chicago) 83 (1 Feb. 1930), 249-50.
6
John Guernsey, Retailing Tomorrow (New York, 1929), 61, 67, 68, 64, 70.
7
Boris Emmet and John E. Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters: A History of Sears, Roebuck and Company (Chicago, 1950)
James C. Worthy, Shaping an American Institution: Robert E. Wood and Sears, Roebuck (Urbana, 1984).
8
"Montgomery Ward Open," WWD, 29 July 1920, 63
"Prices Reduced," WWD, 9 Nov. 1929,40 (re Chicago)
"To Add Store," WWD, 17 May 1924, 1, 7
"Montgomery Ward," WWD, 14 Aug. 1924, 23 (re Fort Worth)
"Montgomery Ward," WWD, 24 Feb. 1922, 39 (re Kansas City)
"Huge Structure," Oakland Tribune, 30 Dec. 1923, A5
"Oakland Branch," WWD, 11 Jan. 1924, 31
"Montgomery Ward," WWD, 7 July 1924, 1, 3 (re Oakland).
9
Emmet and Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters, ch. 20
Worthy, Shaping, 40-43, 81, 83.
10
"Sears-Roebuck Retail," WWD, 21 Nov. 1925, 1, 5
"What Retail Selling," Retail Ledger (Philadelphia), 2nd Dec. issue, 1925, 10
"What Sears-Roebuck's," Retail Ledger, 2nd Jan. issue, 1926, 10
"Liberal Returns Policy," WWD, 26 Nov. 1927, I-4
"Staple, Not Style Goods," WWD, 31 Mar. 1928, I-1
Merryle Stanley Rukeyser, "A Revolution in Retailing," American Review of Reviews 78 (Nov. 1928), 523-27.
11
"The Sears, Roebuck Building," Architectural Record 18 (Aug. 1905), 165-69
"Designing a Great Mercantile Plant," Architectural Record 19 (June 1906), 403-11
George C. Nimmons, "Modern Industrial Plants," Architectural Record 45 (June 1919), 506-25
"Sears, Roebuck and Company Administration Building," Landmark Designation Report, Commission on Chicago Landmarks, June 2002.
Historic America Buildings Survey (No. Il-1187, 20 Apr. 1994).
The garden (1907)
YMCA building (1910)
12
Western Architect 20 (July 1914), pl., and 23 (Jan. 1916), 6
"Sears, Roebuck Purchase," WWD, 9 Jan. 1925, 1
WWD, 16 Feb. 1925, 55
"Sears, Roebuck President," WWD, 10 Jan. 1925, 23
Kansas City Star, 30 Aug. 1925, 12D-13D.
"Sears-Roebuck Buy," WWD, 9 Dec. 1925, 1
"Big Sears-Roebuck Branch," Atlanta Constitution, 9 Dec. 1925, 1, 3
"Sears-Roebuck Plant," Atlanta Constitution, 10 Dec. 1925, 5
"Sears- Roebuck Plant," WWD, 20 May 1926, 6
Atlanta Constitution, 1 Aug. 1926, 12A-18A
"Scenes at Opening," Atlanta Constitution, 3 Aug. 1926, 9
"30,000 at Opening," WWD, 3 Aug. 1926, 8.
13
Richard Longstreth, City Center to Regional Mall: Architecture, the Automobile, and Retailing in Los Angeles, 1920-1950 (Cambridge, Mass., 1997), 120-21
"Sears-Roebuck Open," WWD, 2 Mar. 1927, 13
"Sears, Roebuck & Company," Commercial Appeal (Memphis), 27 Mar. 1927, I-17
Commercial Appeal, 26 Aug. 1927, Sears, Roebuck sect.
"Sears, Roebuck Opens," Commercial Appeal, 27 Aug. 1927, 13.
"Sears, Roebuck Plan," WWD, 26 Mar. 1927, 17
"City Paves Way," Minneapolis Tribune, 26 Mar. 1927, 1, 7
"New $5,000,000 Sears," Minneapolis Tribune, 1 Mar. 1928, 19-28
"Sears Opens," WWD, 16 Oct. 1929, I-8.
"Sears, Roebuck Will Open," WWD, 23 Nov. 1927, 1
"Sears, Roebuck Store," Boston Herald, 29 Aug. 1928, 19-26
"Sears Roebuck Enters," Chain Store Age 4 (Sept. 1928): Gen. Merchandise Sect., 12-13, 16-17, 20
"Sears, Roebuck & Company's Boston Store," Architecture & Building 60 (Dec. 1928), 373-74, 379-80.
Architectural Forum 51 (Sept. 1929), 307-8.
14
G. H. Edgell, The American Architecture of Today (New York, 1928)
R. W. Sexton, The Logic of Modern Architecture (New York, 1929).
15
"Does It Pay to Improve Manufacturing and Industrial Buildings Architecturally?" Brickbuilder 25 (Sept. 1916), 217-30
Modern Industrial Plants," Architectural Record 44 (Nov. 1918), 414-21
(Dec. 1918), 532-49
45 (Jan. 1919), 26-43
(Feb. 1919), 148-68
(Mar. 1919), 262-82
(Apr. 1919), 343-55
(May 1919), 450-70
(June 1919), 506-25
"Industrial Buildings," American Architect 129 (5 Jan. 1926), 15-17.
Russell Sturgis, "Some Recent Warehouses," Architectural Record 23 (May 1908), 378-79
Peter B. Wight, "Utilitarian Architecture at Chicago," Architectural Record 27 (Feb. 1910), 190-93
"Some Industrial Buildings by George C. Nimmons," Architectural Record 38 (Aug. 1915), 228-45
Robert Craik McLean, "The Modern Factory," Western Architect 23 (Jan. 1916), 3-9
"The Union Special Machine Company's Plant, Chicago, Illinois," Architectural Record 44 (Aug. 1918), 159-63
"The Federal Electric and Walker Vehicle Plants, Chicago," American Architect 119 (11 May 1921), 559-64.
Peter B. Wight, "Ravisloe Country Club, Homewood, Illinois," Architectural Record 43 (May 1918), 404-12
"Olympia Fields Country Club," Economist 56 (16 Sept. 1916), 551.
17
Worthy, Shaping, 83-87
Frank B. Latham, 1872-1972, A Century of Serving Consumers: The Story of Montgomery Ward (Chicago, 1972), 70-74
Cecil C. Hoge, Jr., The First Hundred Years Are the Toughest (Berkeley, 1988), 103-10.
Wayne (1928)
Des Moines, Oklahoma City, Spokane (all 1929)
Nashville (1930).
18
n. 4.
"Sears, Roebuck Co.," Jackson Citizen-Patriot (Michigan), 10 May 1929, 9
"Sears Roebuck and Co.'s," Council Bluffs Nonpareil, 14 June 1929, 17
"Sears-Roebuck's New," Tucson Daily Citizen, 4 Oct. 1929, 7
"Sears, Roebuck Store," Chester Times (Pennsylvania), 6 Mar. 1930, 1, 10
"Sears, Roebuck to Open," Columbus Dispatch, 5 July 1932, A13.
19
"Sears, Roebuck & Company," Retail Ledger, 1st Nov. issue, 1926, 1.
"How Sears, Roebuck," Retail Ledger, 2nd Nov. issue, 1925, 1.
20
"Sears, Roebuck to Open," WWD, 28 July 1925, 1, 63
"New Sears-Roebuck," WWD, 13 Aug. 1925, 49
Howard News (Chicago), 29 Aug. 1925, 3
"Sears-Roebuck's," WWD, 2 Nov. 1925, 2, 55
"Sears, Roebuck Say," WWD, 3 Nov. 1925, 34
"Two More Sears- Roebuck Stores Open in Chicago," Sales Management 9 (14 Nov. 1925), 682-83.
22
Longstreth, City Center, 113-24.
23
"Sears, Roebuck Co.," Indianapolis News, 24 July 1929, Sears-Roebuck sec, 2
"Shoppers Become," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 7 Aug. 1929, II-1
"Free Parking Space," Newark Star Eagle, 30 Oct. 1929, Sears-Roebuck sec, X-1.
24
Longstreth, City Center, 43-55, 97-101, 115, 134
Longstreth, The Drive-In, the Supermarket, and the Transformation of Commercial Space in Los Angeles, 1914-1941 (Cambridge, Mass., 1999).
25
"How Sears Solves," Detroit Free Press, 13 June 1928, Sears, Roebuck sec, 2
"Sears, Roebuck Co.," Cambridge Chronicle, 2 Dec 1927, 1, 6
"Incomplete Plans," Cambridge Tribune, 10 Dec. 1927, 1, 5
"Many Speak," Cambridge Chronicle, 16 Dec. 1927, 22
"Sears, Roebuck Co.," Cambridge Tribune, 17 Dec. 1927, 1, 10
"Sears, Roebuck & Co.," Cambridge Chronicle, 23 Dec. 1927, 1
"Makes Claims," Cambridge Tribune, 28 July 1928, 1.
26
"Sears-Roebuck Plan," WWD, 2 Feb. 1928, I-2
"Sears, Roebuck," WWD, 5 Sept. 1928, I-9
"Sears, Roebuck to Open," Minneapolis Star, 29 Aug. 1928, Sears, Roebuck.
27
"Sears-Roebuck Plan," WWD, 10 Feb. 1928, I-1
"Sears-Roebuck Provides," Cleveland Plain Dealer, 10 Feb. 1928, 14
"Sears-Roebuck Opens," Cleveland Plain Dealer, 5 Aug. 1928, 16A (re Cleveland)
"Sears, Roebuck Plan," WWD, 9 Jan. 1929, I-11
"Sears, Roebuck to Build," Pittsburgh Post, 9 Jan. 1929, 8
Pittsburgh Press, 4 Sept. 1929, Sears, Roebuck sec (re Pittsburgh)
"Sears, Roebuck Plan," WWD, 13 Mar. 1928, I-1
"Sears-Roebuck to Open," St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 19 Sept. 1928, 3
"Reported Price," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 25 Nov. 1928, IX-1 (re St. Louis)
"Big Retail Store," Washington Post, 18 Aug. 1929, R-3 (re Washington).
Richard Longstreth, History on the Line: Testimony in the Cause of Preservation (Washington and Ithaca, 1998), 53-54.
28
"Sears Miami," WWD, 25 Apr. 1929, I-6, I-13
"Miami to Have," Miami Herald, 25 Apr. 1929, 1, 8
"Sears Roebuck Store," Miami Herald, 13 Nov. 1929, Sears, Roebuck sec, 1, 10.
"Boulevard Is Merger," Miami Herald, 28 July 1929, 21.
29
Gen. R. E. Wood, "Why We Came to Cleveland," Clevelander 3 (June 1928), 16.
30
"Sears to Open," WWD, 22 July 1929, I-11, I-14
"Opening Set," Indianapolis News, 22 July 1929, 15, 14
Indianapolis News, 24 July 1929, Sears-Roebuck sec. (re Indianapolis)
"Sears, Roebuck Plans," WWD, 11 Dec. 1928. I-13
Courier-Journal, 4 Aug. 1929, 7
Courier-Journal, 7 Aug. 1929, sec. 2 (re Louisville).
31
"Thousands Visit," Houston Post-Dispatch, 28 Aug. 1929, 9
"Sears Opens," WWD, 28 Aug. 1929, 14
"Sears, Houston, Loss," WWD, 11 Dec. 1935, 19
"Sears to Buy," WWD, 20 May 1938, I-3.
32
"How Sears, Roebuck," Retail Ledger, 2nd Nov. issue, 1925, 1
"Does Sears-Roebuck?" Retail Ledger, 1st Dec. issue, 1925, 1.
"New Sears, Roebuck," Cambridge Chronicle, 13 July 1928, 13
"Ads Welcome," WWD, 13 Sept. 1928, I-9
"How Departments," Indianapolis News, 24 July 1929, Sears-Roebuck sec., 8
"Sears-Roebuck Store," Post Standard (Syracuse), 3 Oct. 1929, 17.
33
Lindy Biggs, The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in Americas Age of Mass Production (Baltimore, 1996), 52ff.
34
"Construction and Operation," WWD, 24 Sept. 1927, I-3
"New Milwaukee Unit," WWD, 19 Nov. 1927, I-17
"Interior Designed," Detroit Free Press, 13 June 1928, Sears-Roebuck sec., 6
"New Store Comprises," Miami Herald, 13 Nov. 1929, Sears, Roebuck sec., 7.
35
George C. Nimmons, "The New Renaissance in Architecture," American Architect 134 (5 Aug. 1928), 141-48
"Store Arrangements," Brooklyn Eagle, 4 Nov. 1932, 14.
"The Rosenwald House," Architectural Record 18 (July 1905), 27-32
H. Allen Brooks, The Prairie School: Frank Lloyd Wright and His Midwest Contemporaries (Toronto, 1972), 55-56, 194-96.
Thomas E. Tallmadge, The Story of Architecture in America (New York, 1927), ch. 9.
36
Carl Condit, The Chicago School of Architecture: A History of Commercial and Public Building in the Chicago Area, 1815-1925 (Chicago, 1964), 186-95, pls. 148-55
Bernard C. Greengard, "Hugh M. G. Garden," Prairie School Review 3, no. 1 (1966), 5-18
Brooks, Prairie School, 46-55, 98-102.
Architectural Record 52 (Nov. 1922), 423-25
Architectural Forum 39 (Sept. 1923), pl. 46.
38
Bernice L. Thomas, America's 5 & 10 Cent Stores: The Kress Legacy (New York and Washington, 1997), chs. 3, 4.
John A. Jakle and Keith A. Sculle, The Gas Station in America (Baltimore, 1994), esp. ch. 2.
39
Don E. Mowry, "How the National Chain Benefits the Community," Chain Store Age, General Merchandise ed., 8 (Aug. 1932), 5-6, 86-87.
[Robert E. Wood], "The Five-Fold Responsibility of Mass Distribution, as Sears Sees It," Chain Store Age, General Merchandise ed., 13 (May 1937), 142, 160.
40
"Sears, Roebuck to Open," WWD, 24 July 1925, 1
"Sears, Roebuck Retail," Evansville Press, 3 Oct. 1925, 2
"Sears-Roebuck Open," WWD, 6 Oct. 1925, 47
"Sears, Roebuck 'Just Another Store,'" WWD, 23 Apr. 1927, 8-9.
42
"Sears-Roebuck Plan," WWD, 22 Mar. 1928, I-1
"Sears- Roebuck," WWD, 24 July 1928, I-5
"Sears, Roebuck," WWD, 21 Aug. 1928, I-9 (re Des Moines)
"Sear-Roebuck Plan," WWD, 12 June 1928, I-2
Salt Lake City Tribune, 29 Aug. 1928, 19 (re Salt Lake City)
Augusta Chronicle, 10 Oct. 1928, Sears, Roebuck sec. (re Augusta); "Biggest Sears," WWD, 16 Nov. 1928, I-1, I-16
"Sears Opens," WWD, 1 Aug. 1929, I-11
Toledo News-Bee, 31 July 1929, Sears, Roebuck sec. (re Toledo).
43
"Sears, Roebuck Seeking," WWD, 16 July 1928, I-1
"Sears, Roebuck Concludes," WWD, 18 July 1928, I-1, I-2
Richmond Times-Dispatch, 30 Sept. 1928, 19, 22-23 (re Richmond); Pasadena Star-News, 29 Apr. 1930, 11
Pasadena Star-News, 30 Apr. 1930, pt. 3 (re Pasadena).
44
Daily Oklahoman, 19 May 1929, 15
"Sears, Roebuck," WWD, 31 May 1929, I-9 (re Oklahoma City)
"Sears' Lincoln," WWD, 20 Aug. 1929, I-1, I-12
Nebraska State Journal, 28 Aug. 1929, Sears Roebuck and Co. sec. (re Lincoln)
"Sears, Roebuck Plan," WWD, 17 Apr. 1928, I-1
"Sears, Roebuck Buys," World-Herald (Omaha), 17 Apr. 1928, 1, 2
World-Herald, 22 Aug. 1928, Sears, Roebuck & Co. sec.
"Sears, Roebuck Omaha," WWD, 28 Aug. 1928, I-8 (re Omaha).
45
"Sears-Roebuck," WWD, 20 June 1928, I-10
"Sears, Roebuck & Co.," Nashville Banner, 16 Jan. 1929, 1-7
"Sears-Roebuck Nashville," WWD, 23 Jan. 1929, I-7, I-8.
"Sears, Roebuck Plan," WWD, 24 May 1928, I-7
Tacoma Ledger, 28 Oct. 1928, 13 (re Tacoma)
"Sears, Roebuck Co. Opens," Press-Telegram, 12 Sept. 1928, B-1—B-5 (re Long Beach)
"Sears, Roebuck & Co.," San Diego Union, 19 Oct. 1928, 9-13
"Sears, Roebuck to Open," Gary Post Tribune (Indiana), 3 Sept. 1929, 2.
46
"Business Center," San Antonio Express, 28 Aug. 1928
San Antonio Express, 5 Mar. 1929
47
"Sears Starting," WWD, 7 July 1930, I-12
Emmet and Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters, 349
n. 7
48
"Sears Primarily Buying," WWD, 6 Aug. 1930, I-6
"To Build," WWD, 24 Feb. 1931, I-21
"One Home," WWD, 18 Mar. 1931, I-26
"W. H. Alexander," WWD, 3 Sep. 1931, I-1
"New Feibelman's," Times-Picayune (New Orleans), 1 Nov. 1931, 1, 5
"Sears' Opens," WWD, 2 Nov. 1931, I-28.
"Fargo to Get," Fargo Forum, 16 May 1930, 1
"New Building Planned," WWD, 10 June 1930, 7
"Blacks, Sears Roebuck," Fargo Forum, 28 July 1930, 1
"Formal Event," WWD, 16 June 1931, I-8.
"Tulsa's Pioneer," Tulsa World, 12 Aug. 1931, 1, 6
"Sears' Buys," WWD, 13 Aug. 1931, 1.
49
Emmet and Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters, 347-62
Worthy, Shaping, 88-105 (quotation on 103)
n. 7
50
Leslie S. Janes, "New Display Methods Stimulate Sales," Chain Store Age, General Merchandise ed., 7 (July 1931), 5, 46, 62 (quotation on 46)
Chain Store Age, General Merchandise ed., 7 (Aug. 1931): 5-6, 25.
51
Emmet and Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters, 536-37.
"$1,000,000 Sears, Roebuck," Bergen Evening Record (Hackensack), 21 Mar. 1932, 1
"Flatbush Area," Brooklyn Eagle, 21 Mar. 1932, 8
"Sears Plans," WWD, 21 Mar. 1932, I-1, I-24
"3 Stores Planned," New York Times, 22 Mar. 1932, 38
"3 New Sears," Hudson Dispatch, 22 Mar. 1932, 1, 2
"Sears, Roebuck Open," Bergen Evening Record, 26 Oct. 1932, 1
"Mrs. Roosevelt to Open," Brooklyn Eagle, 4 Nov. 1932, 13-17
"50,000 Visit," WWD, 7 Nov. 1932, 1, 20
"'Twelve Specialty Stores,'" Hudson Dispatch, 9 Nov. 1932, 8, 10
"Sears Opens Three Big Stores within One Month," Chain Store Age, Administrative ed., 8 (Dec. 1932), 713-15, 730
"Eight Modern Department Stores," Architectural Forum 58 (May 1933), 369-72.
52
"Sears, Roebuck Control," Economist 82 (28 Sept. 1929), 735.
"Englewood Rising," Chicago Daily News, 11 Feb. 1922, 15
"Neighborhood Shopping District," WWD, 9 July 1927, 2
"Englewood Faces," Chicago Daily News, 10 Mar. 1928, 14
"Englewood a Merchandising Center," Economist 80 (22 Sept. 1928), 689, 694
"Chain Store Groups," Economist 81 (20 Apr. 1929), 938
"Englewood," Chicago Daily News, 8 July 1929, 31
"Business Good," Chicago Daily News, 31 Aug. 1929, 14
Philip M. Hauser and Evelyn M. Kitagawa, eds., Local Community Fact Book for Chicago, 1950, Chicago Community Inventory (Chicago, 1953), 278.
Richard Longstreth, "Bringing 'Downtown' to the Neighborhoods: Wieboldt's, Goldblatt's, and the Creation of Department Store Chains in Chicago," Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture (forthcom- ing).
53
"Sears, Roebuck to Build," Chicago Tribune, 10 Dec. 1933, V-10
"Confirm Sears," WWD, 12 Dec. 1933, I-1, 30, 35
Economist Annual Review 91 (12 Jan. 1934), 22.
54
"Former Leiter Site," WWD, 10 Aug. 1931, I-1
"Sears Lease," WWD, 5 Oct. 1931, I-22
"Sears to Pay," WWD, 7 Oct. 1931, I-8
"Sears, Roebuck to Open," Economist 86 (10 Oct. 1931), 15
"Remodeling of Leiter Building," Economist 86 (21 Nov. 1931), 17
"Sears Roebuck Joins," Chicago Daily News, 2 Mar. 1932, 4
"Sears Opens," WWD, 3 Mar. 1932, I-24
"15,000 Crowd," Chicago Daily News, 3 Mar. 1932, 8
"Good Trade," WWD, 4 Mar. 1932, I-22
"Sears Invades," Retailing, 5 Mar. 1932, 5
"Sears Spent," Retail Ledger, magazine sec, Apr. 1932, 6.
Theodore Turak, William Le Baron Jenney: A Pioneer of Modern Architecture (Ann Arbor, 1986), 269-77
Neil Harris, "Shopping— Chicago Style," in John Zukowsky, ed., Chicago Architecture 1872-1922: Birth of a Metropolis (Munich, 1987), 141-42
Joseph Shy, Carson Pirie Scott: Louis Sullivan and the Chicago Department Store (Chicago, 1988), 41-46.
55
"Fluorescent Illumination—A Lighting Trend," Display World 33 (Sept. 1938), 3
Robert W. Morris, "New Display and Lighting Possibilities in Fluorescent Lighting," Bulletin, National Retail Dry Goods Association, 21 (Jan. 1939), 24-25
Dean M. Warren, "Light Conditioning with Fluorescence," Display World 34 (Mar. 1939), 24, 50
M. R. Mattson, "Numerous Advantages with Fluorescent Installation," Display World 36 (Feb. 1940), 42-43.
"Give Next Summer's," Retailing, 28 Nov. 1931, 7
"Air Conditioning Does Pay Its Way," Dry Goods Economist 91 (5 Jan. 1937), 74, 76
"Air Conditioning Seen," WWD, 6 Oct. 1937, II-4, 15
Harry Boyd Matzen, "Air Conditioning for Profit," Department Store Economist 1 (25 Nov. 1938), 6
"Sales Up," Retail Executive, 26 July 1939, I-10
"See All-Year Benefits," Retailing, 27 Feb. 1939, 8.
56
"Windowless Store," Retailing, 28 May 1934, 8
"Sears Builds Windowless Store," Chain Store Age, General Merchandise ed., 10 (July 1934), 22-23, 54
"Sears Roebuck to Build First Windowless Dept. Store," Display World 25 Quly 1934), 10-11
"The World's First Windowless Store," Dry Goods Economist 88 (July 1934), 75
"Sears' New Englewood," WWD, 22 Nov. 1934, 4, 21
"No Windows," Architect and Engineer 120 (Feb. 1935), 35-38
"Without Windows," Architectural Forum 62 (Mar. 1935), 206-11.
Emmet and Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters, 538-40.
Stephen Eskilson, "Sears Beautiful," Chicago History 29 (fall 2000), 26-43.
"Sears to Put Up," WWD, 13 Jan. 1932, I-8
"Sears' Dramatize," Retailing, 29 May 1933, 12
"Sears, Roebuck and Co.: An Epic in a Century of Progress," Chain Store Age, General Merchandise ed., 9 (Sept. 1933): 20-21, 46-47.
57
"New $500,000 Sears," WWD, 22 Oct. 1935, 1, 40
"Sears' Store," Nashville Banner, 27 Oct. 1935, 4
"Sears Store," Nashville Tennessean, 27 Oct. 1935, 7
"Sears New Store," Nashville Banner, 2 Sept. 1936, X-7.
58
"Architectural Concrete at Its Best in Three Great Buildings," Concrete 46 (Apr. 1938), 3-4
"Concrete Sets New Architectural Standards for Housing Commerce and Industry," Concrete 47 (Feb. 1939), 57.
C. W. Boynton and J. H. Libberton, "The Decorative Possibilities of Concrete," Architect & Engineer 36 (Apr. 1914), 47-69
Frank J. Helmle, "Architectural Expression in Concrete," Architectural Forum 34 (Jan. 1921), 11-16
Albert Kahn, "Reinforced Concrete Architecture These Past Twenty Years," Concrete 24 (Apr. 1924), 129-34
Francis S. Onderdonk, The Ferro-Concrete Style: Reinforced Concrete in Modern Architecture (New York, 1928)
"Reinforced Concrete—New Architectural Possibilities," Concrete 32 (May 1928), 35-39
"Form Details and Practice Developed for Architectural Concrete," Concrete 38 (Mar. 1931), 39-42
"Forms for Architectural Concrete," Portland Cement Association, Chicago, Jan. 1936
"Plywood Form Work Is Important Factor in Architectural Concrete," Concrete 48 (May 1940), 12-13, 33.
59
George Wallace Carr, "Four Stores for Sears," Architectural Concrete 4, no. 2 [1938], 2-6 (quotation on 3).
Leonard E. Dunlap, "Concrete for Every Sears Climate," Architectural Concrete 6, no. 2 [1940], 2-6
"5 Retail Stores," Architectural Record 88 (Sept. 1940), 31-42
"Monolithic Concrete Walls, Glass Block Shafts Highlight $1,000,000 Store," Chain Store Age, General Merchandise ed., 17 (Feb. 1941)
Emmet and Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters, 540-42.
60
"Store's Features," Baltimore News-Post, 20 Sept. 1938, C-1, C-7
"Sears, Roebuck Baltimore Store Features World's Largest Window," Chain Store Age, Variety Store ed., 14 (Dec. 1938), 32-33
"Sears' Giant Windows," Display World 33 (Dec. 1938), 6
Donald R. Tuttle, "The World's Largest Window," Display World 50 (Apr. 1947), 56, 103
"Sears' Big Window," Display World 55 (July 1949), 58.
61
R. H. Fogle, "Remodeled Stores Increase Our Net Profit," Chain Store Age, General Merchandise ed., 10 (Apr. 1934), 18
"Define Ward Personality," Retailing, 7 May 1934, 13
"Colonial Architecture Is Adapted to Nationwide Theme," Chain Store Age, Administrative ed., 16 (Apr. 1940), 14-15, 41-43.
62
"Mail Order House Invades Chain Service Station Field," Business Week, 12 Aug. 1931, 7
D. M. Nelson, "Sears Entering Super Service," Petroleum Age 25 (Sept. 1931), 36-37
Thomas W. Watson, "Sears, Roebuck to Operate Stations with Its Retail Stores," National Petroleum News 24 (18 May 1932), 41-42, 44
"Sears Stations," Tide 25 (1 Nov. 1941), 65.
"Eight Modern Department Stores," 370-71
63
"Sears Own Designers," Los Angeles Times, 19 Oct. 1939, IV-7.
"New Sears Unit," WWD, 2 Dec. 1938, 1, 20
"Big Stores Join," Retail Executive, 19 Dec. 1938, 6
"Sears Store," Los Angeles Times, 18 Oct. 1939, I-10
"Sears' Largest," Beverly Hills Citizen, 20 Oct. 1939, 8
"Sears Coast Unit," WWD, 25 Oct. 1939, I-17
"Upside Down Store," Chain Store Age, Administrative ed., 16 (Jan. 1940), 16-17
"Store Building for Sears Roebuck and Co., Los Angeles, Calif.," Architectural Forum 72 (Feb. 1940), 70-76
"Sears, Roebuck of Los Angeles," Retail Management 35 (15 Apr. 1940), 15-16
Oliver G. Bowen, "Store for Sears in Los Angeles," Architectural Concrete 6, no. 2 [1940], 7-9.
64
n. 13
n. 24
65
"Modern Store," Tide, supp., 10 (Aug. 1936), 10
"Roof Parking to Relieve Street Overcrowding," American City 52 (Jan. 1937), 44 (re Fred Meyer)
"Parking on Roof," Retailing, 13 July 1936, 16
"Firestone Will Open," Evanston Review, 25 Mar. 1937, 63
Architectural Record 86 (June 1937), 75
"Parking on the Roof," Engineering News-Record 119 (9 Dec. 1937), 939-41
67
"Store Building for Sears," 74.
68
Elizabeth Mock, ed., Built in USA: 1932-1944 (New York, 1944), 110
Morris Ketchum, Shops & Stores (New York, 1948), 262-65
Louis Parnes, Planning Stores that Pay (New York, 1948), 114-15, 190-91.
69
"Confirm Sears Stores," WWD, 5 Aug. 1940, 1, 23
"Sears Opens," WWD, 1 May 1941, 30; Honolulu Advertiser, 8 May 1941, Sears, Roebuck sec.
"Sears, Roebuck Increases," Birmingham News, 15 Oct. 1941, 3
"Single-Floor Layout Makes Shopping Easy in Mammoth Store," Chain Store Age, Administrative ed., 18 (Apr. 1942), 20-21
"Three Retail Stores for Sears, Roebuck & Co.," Architectural Forum 76 (Apr. 1942), 207-12
Emmet and Jeuck, Catalogues and Counters, 544-45.
70
"Zoning Body Grants," Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), 17 Feb. 1940, A-20
"Citizens Storm," Evening Star, 4 Mar. 1940, A-1
"Zone Rehearing," Evening Star, 14 Mar. 1940, B-1
"Zoning Action," Washington Port, 21 Mar. 1940, 15.
"New Sears, Roebuck," Evening Star, 1 Oct. 1941, A-13
"Sears Opens," WWD, 1 Oct. 1941, 1, 20
"Three Retail Stores," 213-16
"Shopping Conveniences Feature Big Sears Store," Chain Store Age, Administrative ed., 18 (June 1942), 8-9
John Stokes Redden, "Sears Store for Washington," Architectural Concrete 8, no. 4 [1942], 10-13
"Selecting the Surface Texture for Sears Architectural Concrete Building," Concrete 51 (Feb. 1943), 5-6
Longstreth, History on the Line, ch. 4
n. 27
71
"Tennessee Valley Authority," Architectural Forum 71 (Aug. 1939), 73-114
Kenneth Reid, "Design in TVA Structures," and Talbot Hamlin, "Architecture of the TVA," Pencil Points 20 (Nov. 1939), 691-719 and 720-31
Frederick A. Gutheim, "Tennessee Valley Authority: A New Phase in Architecture," Magazine of Art 33 (Sept. 1940), 516-31.
Walter L. Creese, TVA's Public Planning: The Vision, the Reality (Knoxville, 1990).
72
Worthy, Shaping, 215-20
n. 7
"Young Sears, Roebuck," Fortune 38 (Aug. 1948), 84-87, 129-30, 132.
Fairchild's Financial Manual of Retail Stores (New York, 1960).
74
Richard Longstreth, The Department Store Transformed, 1920-1960 (forthcoming), ch. 6.
75
Longstreth, City Center, 259-62
n. 13
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