James Stirling and James Gowan's Preston housing scheme (1957-61) has been largely neglected by architectural historians. The Preston housing demonstrates that Victorianism had an earlier and far stronger role in Stirling's movement toward a skeptical engagement with modernism and a more reconciliatory approach to architectures of the past. This article casts new light on the scheme through a close examination of the buildings themselves, the architects' statements, and Stirling's photographs. The architects brought two new resources to the work on these buildings: an interest in the regional aspects of the "functional tradition" and a willingness to use elements of the then-depised Victorian city, especially the typology of its bylaw streets. Critical response centred on the scheme's alleged "nostalgia," but the architects anticipated this reaction by adopting a positive understanding of nostalgia that enabled them to reconsider the possibilities of a retrospective and place-specific architecture in postwar Britain.

Notes

Notes
1
Miles Glendinning and Stefan Muthesius, Tower Block: Modern Public Housing in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (New Haven and London, 1994)
Nicholas Bullock, Building the Post-War World: Modern Architecture and Reconstruction in Britain (London, 2002).
3
Colin Rowe, "The Blenheim of the Welfare State," As I Was Saying: Recollections and Miscellaneous Essays (1959; Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1996), vol. 1,144.
4
Peter Bürger, Theory of the Avant-Garde, trans. Michael Shaw (Manchester, 1984).
5
James Stirling, "An Architect's Approach to Architecture," Royal Institute of British Architects Journal, ser. 3, vol. 72 (May 1965), 231.
6
James Stirling, "A Personal View of the Present Situation," Architectural Design 28 (1958), 233
Sterling, "House near Liverpool," Architectural Design 26 (July 1956), 241.
7
Architectural Design 25 (Sept. 1955), 287.
8
John Allan, Berthold Lubetkin: Architecture and the Tradition of Progress (London, 1992), 490.
9
James Stirling, '"The Functional Tradition' and Expression," Perspecta 6 (1959), 89.
10
Ibid., 92.
11
Colin Rowe, "Character and Composition; Or Some Vicissitudes of Architectural Vocabulary in the Nineteenth Century," The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays (1953-54; Cambridge, Mass., 1976), 71, 74.
12
James Stirling, "From Garches to Jaoul," Architectural Review 118 (Sept. 1955), 145-51
James Stirling, "Ronchamp: Le Corbusier's Chapel and the Crisis of Rationalism," Architectural Review 119 (Mar. 1956), 155-61.
13
Stirling, "Ronchamp," 161.
14
Mark Girouard, Big Jim: The Life and Work of James Stirling (London, 2000), 36.
15
Stirling, "Personal View," 233.
St. Andrews University (1964-68)
Runcorn New Town (1967)
Haslemere (1967-72).
James Stirling, "Packaged Deal and Prefabrication," Design 123 (Mar. 1959), 28-31.
16
Stirling, "Personal View," 233.
17
James Gowan, "Curriculum," Architectural Review 126 (Dec. 1959), 316.
Ibid., 323.
18
Stirling, "From Garches," 151.
Ibid., 146.
19
James Stirling, "Regionalism and Modern Architecture," Architects' Year Book 8 (London, 1957), 65, 68.
20
Architectural Review Quly 1957)
Stirling, "'Functional Tradition,'" 89.
21
Stirling, "Personal View," 233.
22
Ibid.
23
Stirling, "'Functional Tradition,'" 91.
24
Stirling, "Architect's Approach," 233.
25
James Gowan, interview with the author, 16 May 2005.
"House in Kensington," Architectural Review 127 (Mar. 1960), 191-93
Arthur Korn, "The Work of James Stirling and James Gowan," Architect & Building News 215 (7 Jan. 1959), 23
Peter Arnell and Ted Bickford, eds., James Stirling: Buildings and Projects (London, 1984), 57-58.
David Dunster, ed., James Gowan (London, 1978), 21.
26
Korn, "Stirling and Gowan," 22.
27
James Stirling, James Stirling: Buildings and Projects 1950-1914 (London, 1996), 8, 43
28
Reyner Banham, The New Brutalism: Ethic or Aesthetic? (London, 1966).
29
http://www.odpm.gov.uk/stellent/groups/odpm_urbanpolicy/documents/ page/odpm_urbpol_608114.hcsp.
30
David Hunt, A History of Preston (Preston, 1992), 256-57
John Brook and Duncan Glen, Preston's New Buildings (Preston, 1975)
31
CBP 4/1/37, LCR.
Canadian Centre for Architecture (hereafter CCA), DRCON 2000:0027:022:002.
32
James Stirling and James Gowan, quoted in Arnell and Bickford, James Stirling, 61.
33
Architecture Canada 45 (Apr. 1968), 44.
34
Architect & Building News 221 (14 Mar. 1962), 381.
35
022:002 JS-007, CCA.
36
Stirling, "Regionalism," 65
n. 19
37
Lubetkin and Tecton's work was clearly in Stirling's mind when he designed his Sheffield University project (1953).
39
Architect's Journal (8 June 1961), 849.
40
Architecture Canada 45 (Apr. 1968), 44.
Charles Jencks, Modern Movements in Architecture (London, 1973), 262.
41
Stirling, "Architect's Approach," 240.
Malcolm Higgs, interview with the author, 31 Oct. 2005.
42
Raphael Samuel, "The Return to Brick," Theatres of Memory, Vol. 1: Past and Present in Contemporary Culture (London, 1994), 123.
43
J. B. Priestley, English Journey (1934; London, 1997), 323.
44
Michael Fried, Menzels Realism: Art and Embodiment in Nineteenth-Century Berlin (New Haven, 2002), 152-59.
45
Stirling, "Ronchamp," 156
n. 13
46
Mark Girouard, "Florey Building, Oxford," Architectural Review 152 (Nov. 1972), 260-77.
47
James Stirling, "Anti-Structures" (1966), repr. in RIBA Drawings Collection, James Stirling (London, 1974), 38.
48
Kenneth Frampton, "Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance," in Hal Foster, ed., Postmodern Culture (London, 1985), 24-25.
Churchill College, Cambridge (1958)
Children's Home, Putney (1960-64)
Old People's Home, Blackheath (1960-64)
Manfredo Tafuri, "L'architecture dans le boudoir," The Sphere and the Labyrinth: Avant-Gardes and Architecture from Piranesi to the 1970s (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1990), 269-70.
49
James Gowan in chitect & Building News 221 (14 Mar. 1962)
CCA (022:002 JS-007
022:002 JS- 018
022:002 JS-019).
Architectural Forum 116 (Mar. 1962), 92-95
Architecture d'aujourd'hui 104 (Oct.-Nov. 1962), 72-75.
50
Architectural Design 31 (Dec. 1961), 538
Arnell and Bickford, James Stirling
n. 25
022:002 JS-007
51
James Stirling and James Gowan, "Re-housing at Preston, Lancashire," Architectural Design 31 (Dec. 1961), 538.
52
Mayne's images of Southam Street in Notting Hill, published in Uppercase 5 (1961)
Nigel Henderson's images of East End children, which had appeared in Alison and Peter Smithson's photomontage CIAM Grille (1953).
53
022:002 JS-007, CCA.
54
Stirling and Gowan, "Re-housing at Preston," 538.
55
Tafuri, "L'architecture," 271.
56
Architectural Design 31 (Dec. 1961), 538-45
Architect & Building News 221 (14Mar. 1962), 381-86
Architects'Journal 133 (8 June 1961), 845-50.
57
Glendinning and Muthesius, Tower Block, 101-3, 122
n. 1
58
Architectural Design 31 (Dec. 1961), 538.
59
Ibid.
60
Architect & Building News 221 (14 Mar. 1962), 381-82.
61
Lancashire Evening Post, 19 Apr. 1955, 29 Feb. 1958.
62
Robert Maxwell, Sweet Disorder and the Carefully Careless: Theory and Criticism in Architecture (New York, 1993), 231.
63
Kenneth Frampton, Modern Architecture: A Critical History (London, 1985), 268.
64
Lancashire Evening Post, 7 June 1961.
65
Architectural Design 31 Quly 1961), 285.
66
Casabella 260 (Feb. 1962), 26-27.
Stirling and Gowan that appeared m Architectural Design 31 (Dec. 1961), 538.
Stirling and Gowan but only Casabella seems to have used it: 022:002 JS-018, CCA.
61
Daily Mail, 18 Oct. 1963.
68
Nikolaus Pevsner, North Lancashire (London, 1969), 198.
his "Modern Architecture and the Historian or the Return of Historicism," Royal Institute of British Architects Journal, 68 (Apr. 1961), 230-37.
69
Reyner Banham, "Neo-Liberty: The Italian Retreat from Modern Architecture," Architectural Review (Apr. 1959), 235.
70
Reyner Banham, "Coronation Street, Hoggartsborough," New Statesman (9 Feb. 1962), 200.
n. 25
71
Banham, "Coronation Street," 200.
72
Ibid, 201.
73
Ibid.
74
Tafuri, "L'architecture," 267
n. 48
75
Jules Lubbock, The Tyranny of Taste: The Politics of Architecture and Design in Britain 1550-1960 (New Haven and London, 1995), 333-37.
76
Pevsner, "Modern Architecture," 230.
77
Ibid., 234.
Ibid., 235.
78
Elain Harwood, "Butterfield and Brutalism," AA Files (summer 1994), 39-46.
79
Stirling and Gowan, "Re-housing at Preston," 538
n. 51
80
Maxwell, Sweet Disorder, 316-18
n. 62
81
Stirling and Gowan, "Re-housing at Preston," 538.
n. 25
82
022:002 JS-018, CCA.
83
David Lowenthal, The Past Is a Foreign Country (Cambridge, England, 1992), 10.
84
Arjun Appadurai, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis, 1996), 77.
85
Adrian Forty, Words and Buildings: A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture (London, 2000), 215-19.
Kerwin Lee Klein, "On the Emergence of Memory in Historical Discourse," Representations 69 (winter 2000), 127-50.
Iain Borden, Joe Kerr, Jane Rendell, and Alicia Pivaro, eds., The Unknown City: Contesting Architecture and Social Space (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 2001).
Christine Boyer's The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1996)
Wendy Wheeler, "Nostalgia Isn't Nasty: the Postmodernizing of Parliamentary Democracy," in Mark Perryman, ed., Altered States: Postmodernism, Politics, Culture (London, 1994)
Doreen Massey, "Space-time and the Politics of Location," in James Lingwood, ed., Rachel Whiteread: House (London, 1995).
86
Anthony Vidler, The Architectural Uncanny: Essays in the Modern Unhomely (Cambridge, Mass., 1992), 7.
87
Stirling's early years, see Girouard, Big Jim, 1-3
n. 14
Albert Dock to serve Tate Liverpool (ca. 1984)
Richard J. Williams, The Anxious City: English Urbanism in the Late Twentieth Century (London, 2004), 113.
88
Colin Rowe, As I Was Saying: Recollections and Miscellaneous Essays, vol. 3 (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1996), 355.
89
Richard Hoggart, The Uses of Literacy (London, 1958), 285
Michael Young and Peter Willmott, Family and Kinship in East London (London, 1957), 198-99.
90
Milan Kundera, Ignorance, trans. Linda Asher (London, 2002), 8.
Homer's Odyssey is, in Kundera 's words, "the founding epic of nostalgia."
92
Robert Maxwell, James Stirling Michael Wilford (Basel, 1998).
93
John Jacobus, introduction to James Stirling, James Stirling: Buildings and Projects 1950-1974 (London, 1996), 17.
94
John McKean, Leicester University Engineering Building (London, 1994), 5.
95
Kundera, Ignorance, 9, 34.
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