The treatise by Juan Bautista Villalpando and Hierónimo Prado presenting a graphic reconstruction of the Temple of Jerusalem enjoyed great popularity in the Protestant and Catholic countries in the seventeenth century. Recognizable elements from the reconstruction such as the Solomonic order, curved buttresses, and nine-bay planning were quoted in Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish sacred buildings. The nine-bay design of a sanctuary as a substitution for the Villalpandian nine-bay composition of the Temple compound was invented independently by Giacomo Medleni in Poland, Jacob van Campen in Holland, and apparently by Christopher Wren in England. The nine-bay four-pier synagogue design originated in Poland in the 1620s and was exported to the Low Countries. It was eagerly adopted by the Portuguese Jewish elite as a recognizable icon of the Temple. The common base for the interest in the Solomonic elements in the synagogue architecture of the seventeenth century in Poland and Holland was apparently messianic mysticism. This kind of ideology had little impact upon the Protestant architecture related to the reconstruction of the Temple, since it was overshadowed there by other typological concepts, including that of the New Children of Israel.

Notes

Notes
1
Sergey R. Kravtsov, "Synagogues in Eastern Galicia," in Sarah Harel Hoshen, ed., Treasures of Jewish Galicia: Judaica from the Museum of Ethnog- raphy and Crafts in L'viv, Ukraine (Tel Aviv, 1996), 38
Kravtsov, "O proiskhozhdenii deviatipolevykh kamennykh sinagog" (On the genesis of nine-bay masonry synagogues), in Ilia Rodov, ed., Evreiskoie iskusstvo v evropeiskom kontekste (Jewish art in the European context) (Jerusalem and Moscow, 2002), 191-204.
2
Ioannes Baptista Villalpandus and Hieronymus Pradus, In Ezechielem exphnationes et apparatus urbis ac templi Hierosolimitani. Commentarii et emag- inibus illustratus opus..., 2 vols. (Rome, 1596-1604).
3
Moshe Idel, Messianic Mystics (New Haven and London, 1998), 154-82.
4
Zdzislaw Pietrzyk, "Judaizanci w Polsce w 2 polowie XVI w." (Judaisers in Poland in the second half of the sixteenth century), in Andrzej Link- Lenczowski and Tomasz Polański, eds., Zydzi w dawnej Rzeczpospolitej (Jews in the Old Commonwealth) (Wroclaw, 1991), 151.
5
Jean-Robert Armogathe, "Interpretations of the Revelation of John: 1500-800," in Bertrand McGinn, ed., The Encyclopedia of Apocalypticism, vol. 2 (New York, 1999), 185-94.
6
Richard H. Popkin, "Some Aspects of Jewish-Christian Theological Interchanges in Holland and England, 1640-1670," in Johannes van den Berg and Ernestine G. E. van der Wall, eds., Jewish-Christian Relations in the Seventeenth Century: Studies and Documents (Dordrecht, 1988), 3-32.
7
Gerrit Groenhuis, De Predikanten. De sociale positie van de predikanten in de Republiek der verenigde Nederlanden voor ca. 1700 (Groningen, 1977), 77-102
Groenhuis, "Calvinism and National Consciousness: The Dutch Republic as the New Israel," in Alastair C. Duke and Coenraad A. Tamse, eds., Britain and the Netherlands (The Hague, 1981), 118-33
Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age (New York, 1987), 94—105
Marloes Huiskamp, "Oppenbare Lessen in Geschiedenis en Moral. Het Oude Testament in Stadthuisen en andere Openbare Gebouwen," in Christian Tümpel, ed., Het Oude Testament in de Schilderkunst van de Gouden Eeuw (Zwolle, Amsterdam, and Jerusalem, 1991), 148-49
Antoni Ziemba, Nowe Dzieci Izraela (The New Children of Israel) (Warsaw, 2000), 73.
8
Harold Fisch, Jerusalem and Albion: The Hebraic Factor in Seventeenth- Century Literature (New York, 1964), 255-58
Steven N. Zwicker, "England, Israel and the Triumph of Roman Virtue," in Richard H. Pop- kin, ed., Millenarianism and Messianism in English Literature and Thought, 1650-1800 (Leiden, 1988), 38-42.
9
David Ruderman, "Three Contemporary Perceptions of a Polish Wun- derkind of the Seventeenth Century," Association for Jewish Studies Review 4 (1979), 143-63.
10
Gershom Scholem, "Shabbetai Zevi," Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 14 (Jerusalem, 1971), 1219-54.
11
Włysław Łuszczkiewicz, "Sprawozdanie z wycieczki odbytej w lecie 1891 roku" (Report on an expedition of summer 1891), Sprawozdania komisyi do badania historyi sztuki w Polsce (Reports of the Commission for Studies in Art History in Poland), vol. 5 (Krakow, 1896), 172-89
Alfred Grotte, Deutsche, böchmische und polnische Synagogentypen vom XI. bis Anfang des XIX. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1915), 37-39
Majer Bałaban, Zabytki histo- ryczne Zydów w Polsce (Historie Jewish monuments in Poland) (Warsaw, 1929), 60
Adolf Szyszko-Bohush, "Materiały do architektury bóznic w Polsce" (Sources on synagogue architecture in Poland), Prace Komisji His- torii Sztuki (Works of the Commission for Art History), vol. 4 (Krakow, 1930), 1-25
Szymon Zajczyk, "Architektura barokowych bóznic murowanych w Polsce (zagadnienia i systematyka materiahi zabytkowego) (The architecture of Baroque masonry synagogues in Poland [problems and systematizing of historical material])," Biuletyn naukowy, wydawany przez Zakład Architektury Polskiej i Historii Sztuki Politechniki Warszawskiej (Sci- entific Bulletin of the Institute of Polish Architecture and Art History at the Polytechnic University of Warsaw) (Warsaw, 1933), 4, 186-95
Maria and Kazimierz Piechotka, Wooden Synagogues (Warsaw, 1957), 28-31
Piechotka and Piechotka, Bramy nieba. Bóznice murowane na ziemiach dawnej Rzeczpospolitej (Gates of heaven: Masonry synagogues in the Old Com- monwealth) (Warsaw, 1999), 70-80
Rachel Wischnitzer, The Architecture of the European Synagogue (Philadelphia, 1964), 115-22
Wischnitzer, "Mutual Influences between Eastern and Western Europe in Synagogue Architec- ture from the 12th to the 18th Century," in The Synagogue: Studies in Ori- gins, Archaeology and Architecture, sel. and intro. by Joseph Gutmann (New York, 1975), 285-94
Brian de Breffny, The Synagogue (New York, 1978), 117-20
Carol Herselle Krinsky, Synagogues of Europe: Architecture, History, Meaning (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), 51,205-17
Gerhard W. Mühlinghaus, "Der Synagogenbau des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts," in Hans-Peter Schwarz, Die Architektur der Synagoge (Frankfurt am Main, 1988), 115-56
Geoffrey Wigoder, The Story of the Synagogue (Jerusalem, 1985), 100-105.
12
Bałaban, Zabytki, 60
Wischnitzer, "Mutual," 287-88.
13
Zajczyk, "Architektura," 190-91
Wischnitzer, "Mutual," 292
Wis- chnitzer, European Synagogue, 115
de Breffny, Synagogue, 117
Piechotka, Bramy, 70-80.
Lucas Cranach's engraving The Measurement of the Temple
Mühlinghaus, "Der Synagogenbau," 143
14
Helen M. Hills, "Villalpando, Juan Bautista," in Jane Turner, ed., The Dictionary of Art (New York, 1996), vol. 29, 560.
Gregor M. Lechner, "Vil- lalpandos Tempelrekonstruktion in Beziehung zu baroker Klosterarchitek- tur," in Friedrich Piel and Jörg Träger, eds., Festschrift Wolf gang Braunfels (Tübingen, 1977), 223-37
René Taylor, "Hermetism and Mystical Archi- tecture in the Society of Jesus," in Rudolf Wittkower and Irma Jaffe, eds., Baroque Art: The Jesuit Contribution (New York, 1972), 63-98
Taylor, "Juan Bautista Villalpando y Jerónimo del Prado. De la arquitectura práctica a la reconstrucción mística," in Dios, arquitecto. J. B. Villalpando y el Templo de Salomón (Madrid, 1994), 153-212
Robert J. van Pelt, Tempel van der Wereld. De kosmische symboliek van de Tempel van Salomo (Utrecht, 1984)
Ralf Busch, "Johan Lund, seine 'Alter Jüdischen Heiligtümer' und die Vorstellung vom Salomonischen Tempel," in Aliza Cohen-Mushlin, ed., Jewish Art, vol. 19/20 Jerusalem, 1993/94), 62-67
Lola Kantor Kazovski, "Piranesi and Villalpando: The Concept of the Temple in European Architectural The- ory," in Bianca Kühnel, ed., "The Real and Ideal Jerusalem in Jewish, Chris- tian and Islamic Art, Jewish Art," vol. 23/24 (Jerusalem, 1998), 226-44.
15
Villalpandus and Pradus, In Ezechielem, vol. 2, pt. 2, 420, 467, 470
n.2
16
Lech Kalinowski, "Barok. Styl czy epoka" (The Baroque: A style or an epoch), Biuletyn Historii Sztuki 1 (1958), 110.
17
Salomon de Bray, Architectura moderna ofte Bouwinge van onsen tyt (Ams- terdam, 1631)
Jacob Judah Arje León, Retrato del Templo de Salomo. En el qual brevemente se descrive la hechura de la fabrica del Templo y de todos los vasos y Instrumentos con que en el se administrava, cuyo modelo tiene el mismo Autor, como cada uno puede ver, and his Afbeeldinghe van den tempel Salomonis . . . (Middelburg, 1642)
Roland Fréart de Chambray, Parallèle de l'architecture antique et de la moderne, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1650)
Christopher Wren, Jr., Parentalia: Or, Memoirs of the Family of the Wrens (London, 1750)
Biblia Polyglotta. Complectentia Textus Originales Hebraicos . . . , 6 vols. (London, 1653-57)
[Johannes Henricus Coccejus], Prophetia Ezechielis cum Commen- tario Johannis Coccei (Amsterdam, 1669)
Juan de Caramuel de Lobkowitz, Architectura civil recta y oblicua, considerada y dibuxada en el Templo de Jerusalem ... (Vigevano, 1678-79)
Campegius Vitringa, Aanleydinge tot het rechte ver- stantvan den tempel, die de propheet Ezechiel gesien en beschreven heeft (Franeker, 1687)
Bernard Lamy, Introduction à la lecture de l'Escriture Sainte (Lyon, 1689).
Leonhard Christoph Sturm, Sciagraphia Templi Hierosolymitani (Leipzig, 1694)
Niko- laus Goldmann and Leonhard Christoph Sturm, Vollständ. Anweisung zu der Civil-Baukunst (Wolffenbüttel, 1696)
Johannes Lund, Die alten Jüdischen Heiligthümer, Gottesdienste und Gewohnheiten, vol. 3 (Hamburg, 1722)
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Entwurffeiner historischen Architektur (Vienna, 1721).
Giovanni Amico, L'architetto Prattico (Palermo, 1726-50)
Isaac Newton, The Chronology of Ancient King- doms Amended (London, 1728)
Augustin Antoine Calmet, Het Algemeen groot historisch . . . naam- en woord-boek van den gantschen H. Bybel (Leiden, 1727)
Jacob Scheuchzer, Physica Sacra, 4 vols. (Augsburg, 1731-35)
Chris- tian Rieger, Vniversae architecturae civilis elementa (Vienna, 1756)
Bar- tolomiej Nataniel Wąsowski, Callitectonicorum seu de pulchro architecturae sacrae et civilis compendio collectiorum liber unicus (Poznań, 1678)
Benedykt Chmielowski, Nowe Ateny albo academia wszelkiej sciencyi pełna (New Athens, or Academy of All Sciences), vol. 1 (L'viv, 1745).
18
Rehav Rubin, Image and Reality: jerusalem in Maps and Views (Jerusalem, 1999), 47-104
Pierre de la Ruffinière du Prey, Hawksmoor's London Churches: Architecture and The- ology (Chicago, 2000), 105.
19
Jan Luyken, Pierre Mortier, Bernard Picart, and others, Historie des Ouden en Nieuwen Testa- ments, 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1700), passim
Alle de Werken van Flavius Josephus (Amsterdam, 1732)
20
Sergio L. Sanabria, "Orders, Architectural," in Dictionary of Art, vol. 23, 489.
21
Kalinowski, "Barok," 110
Maria Brykowska, "Pustelnia w Czernej (A monastery in Czerna)," Biuletyn Historii Sztuki (Bulletin of Art History) 2 (1981), 176-78
Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Estetyka nowoẓytna (Modern aes- thetics) (Wrocław, 1967), vol. 3, 205, 246-47
Jerzy Kowalczyk, Sebastiano Serlio a sztuka polska (Sebastiano Serlio and Polish art) (Wrocław, 1973), 244, 251
Kowalczyk, "Gli ordini nell'Europa centrale. Polonia, Slesia, Boemia," in L'Emploi des ordres dans l'architecture de la Renaissance. Actes du col- loque tenu à Tours du 9 au 14 juin 1986 (Paris, 1992), 317, 324
Kowalczyk, "Elementy Świątyni Salomona w kościołach nowozytnych w Polsce" (Ele- ments of Solomon's Temple in the New Age churches of Poland), in Piotr Paszkiewicz and Tadeusz Zadroẓny, eds., Jerozolima w kulturze europejskiej (Jerusalem in European culture) (Warsaw, 1997), 395-406
Kowalczyk, "Porządek salomonowy w polskiej architekturze nowoẓytnej" (The Solomonic order in modern Polish architecture), in Lech Kalinowski, Stanislaw Mossakowski, and Zofia Ostrowska-Kębłowska, eds., Nobile claret opus. Studia z dziejów sztuki dedykowane Mieczysławowi Złatowi (Nobile claret opus. Studies in art history dedicated to Mieczyslaw Złat) (Wrocław, 1998), 225-36
Adam Małkiewicz, "Teoria architektury w nowoẓytnym pismien- nictwie polskim" (Architectural theory in modern Polish literature), Zeszyty naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego (Prace z historii sztuki) (Scientific pro- ceedings of Jagellonian University [Studies in art history]) (Krakow, 1976), 40-41
Adam Miłobędzki, Architektura polska XVII wieku (Polish architec- ture in the seventeenth century) (Warsaw, 1980), 149.
22
Hieronymus Bildziukiewicz, Divi titularispartii Casimiri insigne virtutum hieroglyphicis emblematum figuris adumbratum (Vilnius, 1610).
Kowal- czyk, "Porządek," 229.
23
n. 17.
24
Brykowska, "Pustelnia w Czernej," 177-78.
26
Miłobędzki, Architektura, 145-49.
27
Kowalczyk, "Porządek," 232-33.
28
Kowalczyk, "Elementy," 402.
29
Brykowska, "Pustelnia w Czernej," passim.
30
Nikolaus Pevsner, Historia architektury europejskiej (History of European architecture), vol. 2 (Warsaw, 1980), 201
Brykowska, "Pustelnia w Czernej," 172-78.
31
Brykowska, "Pustelnia w Czernej," 178
St. John of the Cross, "Ascent of Mount Carmel," in St. John of the Cross, introduction by Kieran Kavanaughand and trans. Otilio Rodriguez, The Collected Works of Saint John of the Cross, (London, 1966), 286-87.
32
Tadeusz Zadrozny, "Dei templum est, Dei structura est, Dei aedificatio est, czyli o niektórych aspektach recepcji idei Światyni Jerozolimskiej w nowoẓytnej architekturze sakralnej" (Dei templum est, Dei structura est, Dei aedificatio est; or on some aspects of perception of the idea of Solomon's Temple in modern sacral architecture), in Piotr Paszkiewicz and Tadeusz Zadroẓny, eds., Jerozolima w kulturze europejskiej (Jerusalem in European culture) (Warsaw, 1997), 407.
33
Piechotka and Piechotka, Wooden Synagogues, 30-33
n. 11
n. 11
34
Piechotka and Piechotka, Wooden Synagogues, 30-33
Piechotka and Piechotka, Bramy nieba, 70-71
n. 11
Synagogues, 11
n. 11
Thomas C. Hubka calls it "clustered-column" (Resplendent Synagogue: Architecture and Worship in an Eighteenth-Century Polish Community [London, 2003], 67).
35
Józef T. Frazik, "Sztuka ziemi przemyskiej i sanockiej. Uwagi o wykon- awcach (Art of the regions of Przemyśl and Sanok: Notes on artists)," in Teresa Hrankowska, ed., Sztuka okolo roku 1600. Materiały sesji Sto- warzyszenia Historyków Sztuki zorganizowanej przy wspólpracy Wydziatu Kul- tury Prezydium Wojewodzkiej Rady Narodowej w Lublinie, Lublin, listopad 1912 (Art around 1600: Proceedings from a session of the Society of Art Histo- rians, organized in cooperation with the presidium of the the Department of Culture, Regional Popular Council in Lublin, Lublin, November 1972) (Warsaw, 1974), 206
Piechotka and Piechotka, Bramy nieba, 175.
36
Szyszko-Bohush, "Materiały," 3-4
n. 11
Rosenau, "The Synagogue and Protestant Church Architecture," in Harry M. Orlinsky, ed., The Synagogue: Studies in Origins, Archaeology and Architecture (New York, 1975), 314.
38
John Onians, Bearers of Meanings: The Classical Orders in Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance (Cambridge, England, 1988), 219-20.
39
John B. Ward-Perkins, "The Shrine of St. Peter and Its Twelve Spiral Columns," Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 42 (1952), 21-33.
40
Majer Bałaban, Ẓydzi Iwowscy na przelomie XVI i XVII wieku (Jews of L'viv in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) (L'viv, 1906), 218-20.
41
Bałaban, Ẓydzi lwowscy, 96
42
Bałaban, Ẓydzi lwowscy, 96.
Grotte, Synagogentypen, pl. 5
n. 11
43
Sebastiano Serlio on Architecture, trans. Vaughan Hart and Peter Hicks, vol. 1 (New Haven, 2001), 366 (after 1551 ed., bk. IV, LXII v [184 r]).
44
Zajczyk, "Architektura barokowych," 194
n. 11
45
Jakób Schall, Przewodnik po zabytkach ẓydowskich m. Lwowa (Guide to Jewish monuments in L'viv) (L'viv, 1935), 56.
47
Bałaban, Ẓydzi Iwoscy, 207, 208, 569.
48
Stanisław Kardaszewicz, Dzieje dawniejsze miasta Ostroga. Materiały do historii Wołynia (Ostroh's past: Sources on the history of Volhynia) (War- saw, 1913), 118.
Ibid.
49
Ihor Fugol and others in the archives of the Center for Jewish Art, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
50
Grotte, Synagogentypen, pl. 5.
51
Zajczyk, "Architektura barokowych," 194.
52
Serhii Yurchenko, "Pro chas budivnytstva Luts'koi bramy v Dubni" (On the dating of the construction of the Luts'k Gate in Dubno), Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva imeni Shevchenka. Pratsi Komisii arkhitektury ta misto- buduvannia (Records of the Shevchenko Scientific Society: Works of the Comission for Architecture and Town Planning), vol. 241 (L'viv, 2001), 511-16.
53
Yurchenko, "Pro chas," 511-16.
54
Michał Kowalczuk, Cech budowniczy we Lwowie za czasów polskich (do roku 1112) (The builders' guild in L'viv during the Polish period [before 1772]) (L'viv, 1927), 31
Władysław Łoziński, Sztuka lwowska w XVI i XVII wieku. Architektura i rzeźba (The art of L'viv in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- turies: Architecture and sculpture) (L'viv, 1901), 82
Andrzej Betlej, "Koś ciół OO. Bernardynów w Zasławiu: Zródła archiwalne do dziejów wystroju późnobarokowego" (The Bernardine order's church in Iziaslav: Archival sources for the history of Late Baroque decoration), Biuletyn Historii Sztuki (Bulletin of Art History) 3-4 (1995), 353-64.
55
Kowalczuk, Cech budowniczy, 31.
56
Zajczyk, "Architektura barokowych," 194.
57
Piechotka and Piechotka, Bramy nieba, 79-80
n. 11
58
Zajczyk, "Architektura barokowych," 194
Eleonora Bergman and Jan Jagielski, Zachowane synagogi i domy modlitwy w Polsce. Katalog (Extant syna- gogues and prayer houses in Poland: Catalogue) (Warsaw, 1996), 135.
59
Brykowska, "Pustelnia w Czernej," 178
n. 21
62
his "Der Architektur der Lem- berger Jesuitenkirche," in Druhyi Mizhnarodnyi Konhres Ukrainistiv, L'viv, 18-22 serpnia 1993 r. Dopovidi ta povidomlennia. Istoriografiya ukrainoznavstva, etnolohiya, kultura (Second International Congress of Ukrainists, L'viv, 18-22 August 1993: Lectures and reports; Historiography of Ukrainian studies, ethnology, and culture) (L'viv, 1994), 184—89.
John Bury, Forty-three Sheets of Architectural Drawings by Giacomo Briano da Modena S. J. (Milan, 1984).
63
Jerzy Paszenda, "Biografía architekta Giacomo Briano" (Biography of the architect Giacomo Briano), Biuletyn Historii Sztuki (Bulletin of Art His- tory) 1 (1973), 13-14.
64
Jan Poplatek and Jerzy Paszenda, Slownik Jezuitów artystów (Dictionary of Jesuit artists) (Krakow, 1972), 99-100.
65
Sergey Kravtsov, "Rekonstruierte Vergangenheit. Die Synagoge von Leszniów im Model," Judaica: Beiträge zum Verstehen des Judentums, vol. 2 (2003), 99.
66
Piechotka and Piechotka, Bramy nieba, 290-91.
67
Majer Bałaban, "Z zagadnień ustrojowych Ẓydowstwa pol- skiego" (Some issues concerning the communal organization of Polish Jewry), in Karol Badecki, ed., Studia lwowskie (L'viv studies) (L'viv, 1932), 43
Jakób Schall, Dawna Zółkiew i jej Ẓydzi (The Old Zhovkva and its Jews) (L'viv, 1939), 71
Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 16 (Jerusalem, 1972), 6.
Stefan Gasiorowski, "Ẓydzi w Ẓółkwi i ich kontakty z tamtejszymi Dominikanami w XVII i pierwszej polowie XVIII wieku" (Jews in Zhovkva and their contacts with local Dominicans in the seventeenth and first quarter of the eighteenth century), Biuletyn Ẓydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego w Polsce (Bulletin of the Jewish Historical Institute in Poland) 1-2 (1993), 25.
68
Łuszczkiewicz, "Sprawozdanie," 177
n. 11
Bergman and Jagielski, Zachowane synagogi, 116-17.
69
Piechotka and Piechotka, Bramy nieba, 274.
70
Krinsky, Synagogues, 8
n. 11
Wigoder, Story of the Synagogue, 36, 38
n. 11
71
Babylonian Talmud, Sukka 52a.
72
Gershom Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, the Mystical Messiah, 1626-1676 (Princeton, 1973), 79.
Idel, Messianic Mystics, 158-59
n. 3
Idel, '"One from a Town, Two from a Clan': The Diffusion of Lurianic Kabbalah and Sabbateanism; A Re-Examination," Jewish History, vol. 7 (Haifa, 1993), 92-93
David Ruderman, "Three Con- temporary Perceptions of a Polish Wunderkind of the Seventeenth Cen- tury," Association for Jewish Studies Review 4 (1979), 143-63.
73
Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 6 (Jerusalem, 1972), 363-64
Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, 78.
74
Jacob Zwarts, Hoofdstukken uit de Gescheidenis der Joden in Nederland (Zutphen, 1929)
C. J. R. van der Linden, "De symboliek van de Nieuwe Kerk van Jacob van Campen te Haarlem," Oud Holland 1 (1991), 4, 22.
75
Van der Linden, "De symboliek," 7.
76
Ibid., 9.
77
Ibid., 4
Koen Ottenheym, "Architectuur," in Jacobine Huisken, Koen Ottenheym, and Gary Schwartz, eds., Jacob van Campen. Het klassieke ideal in de Gouden Eeuw (Amsterdam, 1995), 180-84.
78
Van der Linden, "De symboliek," 1-4
Ottenheym, "Architectuur," 184-87.
79
Van der Linden, "De symboliek," 8.
80
Van der Linden, "De symboliek," 1
Ottenheym, "Architectuur," 185-86.
Petrus T. A. Swillens, Pieter Janszoon Saenredam, schildervan Haarlem, 1597-1665 (Amsterdam, 1935), figs. 97-98, 100-103.
82
Van der Linden, "De symboliek," 21.
83
Ezekiel 43:19-20
84
Van der Linden, "De symboliek," 11.
85
Ibid., 14-15.
86
Ibid., 15-16.
87
n. 7.
88
Ziemba, Nowe Dzieci, 70-71
n. 7
89
Van der Linden, "De symboliek," 21.
90
Idel, "One from a Town," 92
n. 72
91
Erich Hubala, Die Kunst des 11 Jahrhundert. Propyläen Kunstgeschichte, vol. 9 (Berlin, 1970), pis. 292a, 292b, XLIX
Spiro K. Kostof, A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (New York, 1985), 538-39.
92
van der Linden, "De symboliek," 26.
93
David M. Sluys, De oudste Synagogen der Hoogduitsch-Joodsche gemeente te Amsterdam (1635-1671) (Amsterdam, 1921), 17-18
Johannes F. van Agt and Edward van Voolen, Nederlandse synagogen (Weesp, 1984), 19-22.
94
Rosenau, "Synagogue and Protestant Church Architecture," 312
n. 36
95
Judith C. B. Belinfante, Edward van Voolen, David P. Cohen Paraira, Jaffa Baruch-Sznaj, and Julie-Marthe Cohen, The Esnoga: A Monument to Portuguese-Jewish Culture (Amsterdam, 1991), 45-47.
Psalm 5:8
Leo Fuks, "The Inauguration of the Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam in 1675," in Renate G. Fuks-Mansfeld, ed., Aspects of Jewish Life in the Netherlands: A Selection from the Writings of Leo Fuks (Assen, 1995), 86.
96
Sermoēs que pregaraõ os doctos ingenios do K. K. de Talmud Torah, desta Cidade de Amsterdam. No alegre Estreamento, & publica celebridade da Fabrica que se Consagrou a Deos, para caza de Oraçaõ, cuja entrada sefestejou em Sabath Nahamù anno 5435 (Amsterdam, 1675), 1-14.
97
Sermoēs, 17-36
Fuks, "Inauguration," 90-91
René Taylor, "Architecture and Magic: Consideration on the Idea of the Escorial," in Douglas Fraser, Howard Hib- bard, and Milton J. Lewine, eds., Essays in the History of Architecture Pre- sentedto Rudolf Wittkower on His Sixty-sixth Birthday, vol. 1 (London, 1967), 93
Villalpandus and Pradus, In Ezechielem, vol. 2, pt. 2,471 ff.
n. 2
98
Sermoēs, 59-74.
99
First Kings (6:2)
Sermoēs, 85-86.
100
Ibid., 101-29.
101
Ibid., 133-48.
102
Yosef Kaplan, The Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam in the 11th Century: Exhibition to Mark the 300th Anniversary of the Inauguration of the Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam (Jerusalem, 1975), 62.
103
Belinfante, Esnoga, 56.
104
Ibid., 55-58.
105
Ibid., 54-55.
106
Ibid., 54.
107
Yosef Kaplan, "Gente Politica: The Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam vis-à-vis Dutch Society," in Chaya Brasz and Yosef Kaplan, eds., Portuguese Jews as Perceived by Themselves and by Others (Leiden, 2001), 28-29.
108
Yosef Kaplan, "The Portuguese Community in 17th Century Amster- dam and the Ashkenazi World," Dutch Jewish History: Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on the History of the Jews in the Netherlands; 1-10 Decem- ber-Tel Aviv-Jerusalem, 1986 (Jerusalem, 1989), 28.
109
Kaplan, "Portuguese Community," 35-36.
110
Ibid., 41-42.
111
Gordon M. Weiner, "Sephardic Philo- and Anti-Semitism in the Early Modern Era: The Jewish Adoption of Christian Attitudes," in Richard H. Popkin, ed., Jewish Christians and Christian Jews: From the Renaissance to the Enlightenment (Dordrecht, 1994), 193.
112
Weiner, "Sephardic," 190-95.
113
Yosef Kaplan, "The Attitude of the Sephardi Leadership in Amsterdam to the Sabbatian Movement, 1665-1671," in Kaplan, An Alternative Path to Modernity: The Sephardi Diaspora in Western Europe (Leiden, 2000), 222.
114
Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, 573.
115
Ibid., 270-71
Idel, Messianic Mystics, 194
n. 3
116
Sermoēs, 148
n. 96
Fuks, "Inauguration," 94
n. 95
117
Sermoēs, 36.
118
van der Linden, "De symboliek," 22
n. 74
Wischnitzer, Euro- pean Synagogue, 92-97
n. 11
David H. de Castro, De Synagoge der Portugees-Israëlitische Gemeente te Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1950), passim.
119
Sermoēs, 55
120
Popkin, "Some Aspects," 3-32
n. 6
Adri K. Offenberg, "Jacob Jehuda León (1602-1675) and His Model of the Temple," in Johannes van den Berg and Ernestine G. E. van der Wall, eds., Jewish-Christian Relations in the Seventeenth Century: Studies and Documents (Dordrecht, 1988), 95-115 Adri K. Offenberg, "Jacob Judah León Templo's Broadsheet of His Model of the Temple," in Adri K. Offenberg et al., eds., Bibliotheca Rosenthallana: Treasures of Jewish Booklore (Amsterdam, 1994), cat. no. 14.
121
Popkin, "Some Aspects," 20.
122
Popkin, "Some Aspects," 21.
Cecil Roth, Menasseh ben Israel (Philadelphia, 1934).
123
Harry M. Bracken, "Bishop Berkeley's Messianism," in Richard H. Popkin, ed., Millenarianism, IS (see n. 8).
124
Popkin, "Some Aspects," 24.
Popkin, "Christian Jews and Jewish Christians in the 17th Century," Jewish Christians and Christian Jews, 57-80.
125
Du Prey, Hawksmoors London Churches, 9, 49
n. 18
126
James R. Jacob and Margaret C.Jacob, "The Anglican Origins of Mod- ern Science: The Metaphysical Foundations of the Whig Constitution," Isis: An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences 71 (1980), 251-53
Lydia M. Soo, "Wren," in Randall J. van Vynct, ed., International Dictionary of Architects and Architecture, vol. 1 (Detroit, 1993), 994-95.
127
Du Prey, Hawksmoor's London Churches, 149.
128
Parentalia, quoted in Lydia M. Soo, Wren's "Tracts" on Architecture" and Other Writings (Cambridge, England, 1998), 169.
129
Soo, "Wren," 995
Soo, Wren's "Tracts," 128-29.
130
Margaret Whinney, Wren (London, 1971), 61.
131
Ibid., 62-63.
132
Ibid., 64.
133
Ibid., 63.
134
Ibid., 64
Henry W Robinson and Walter Adams, eds., The Diary of Robert Hooke: 1672-1680 (London, 1935), 111.
135
Offenberg, "Jacob Jehuda León," 108
n. 120
136
Wolfgang Herrmann, "Unknown Design for the 'Temple of Jerusalem' by Claude Perrault," in Fraser, Hibbard, and Lewine, Essays to Rudolf Wittkower, 143-58
n. 97
Naomi Miller, "An Encomium to Louis XTV and Versailles," Architec- tura. Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der Baukunst 23, no. 1 (1993), 33.
137
Du Prey, Haw ksmoor s London Churches, 106-9.
138
Ibid., 108
Soo, Wrens "Tracts,"2X6.
139
Ottenheym, "Architectuur," 54
n. 77
140
Kerry Downes, "Wren," in Dictionary of Art, vol. 33, 392.
141
Hugh Trevor-Roper, Crisis of the 11th Century: Reli- gion, the Reformation, and Social Change (New York, 1967), 267.
142
Clarence Epstein, "Compromising Traditions in Eighteenth-Century London: The Architecture of the Great Synagogue, Duke's Place," in Shar- man Kadish, ed., Building jerusalem: Jewish Architecture in Britain (London, 1996), 59.
143
Epstein, "Compromising Traditions," 53-59
Sharmah Kadish, Bevis Marks Synagogue: 1701-2001 (London, 2001), 1.
144
Kadish, Bevis Marks, 20
Kadish, "Constructing Identity: Anglo-Jewry and Synagogue Architecture," Architectural History: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain 45 (2002), 388-89.
145
Kadish, Bevis Marks, 8.
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