This article introduces new evidence for consistent templates and construction in a pair of small Early Gothic churches from the late twelfth century, Gurgy and Beines, located in northern Burgundy in France. The uniformity and elegance of their design points to the distinct working methods and well-conceived planning of an experienced builder and, consequently, isolates a creative individual in the midst of an otherwise unidentified group of medieval workers. Previously, scholars have suggested that builders of regional parish churches were working with outmoded styles. In contrast, these two buildings underscore the sophistication of Early Gothic builders designing small churches in a micro-region of the Yonne Valley.

Notes

Notes
1
Robert Branner, Burgundian Gothic Architecture (London, 1960), 6.
3
Jean Bony, "The Resistance to Chartres in Early Thirteenth-Century Architecture," Journal of the British Archaeological Association, ser. 3, vol. 21-22(1957-58), 35-52.
4
Jean Vallery-Radot, "Aspects et tendances de l'architecture religieuse dans les pays de l'Yonne jusqu-au début du XVII e siècle," Congrès Archéologique (1958), 20.
5
Wilhelm Schlink, Zwischen Cluny und Clairvaux. Die Kathedrale von Lan- gres und die burgundische Architektur des 12. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1970).
6
John James, "An Investigation into the Uneven Distribution of Early Gothic Churches in the Paris Basin, 1140-1240," Art Bulletin 66 (1984), 15-46.
John James, "Evidence for Flying Buttresses before 1180," JSAH (Sept. 1992), 261-87.
7
Chantai Arnaud, "Le Paysage monumental et religieux de l'ancien diocèse d'Auxerre du milieu du Xle au début du XIIIe siècle," Société des Amis des Arts et des Sciences de Tournus 97 (1998), 190-200
"Les Eglises de l'ancien diocèse d'Auxerre du milieu du Xle au début du XlIIe siècle. Étude historique et architecturale" (Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 1997).
Eugène Lefèvre-Pontalis, "Les Caractères distinctifs des écoles goth- iques de la Champagne et de la Bourgogne," Congrès Archéologique (1907), 547-57
André Philippe, "L'Architecture religieuse au Xle et Xlle siècle dans l'ancien diocèse d'Auxerre," Bulletin Monumental (1904), 43-92
Raymond Oursel, Bourgogne Romane (La Pierre-qui-Vire, 1986).
17
John James, The Template-Makers of the Paris Basin: Toichological Techniques for Identifying the Pioneers of the Gothic Movement with an Examination of Art-Historical Methodology (Sydney, 1989), 164.
22
my "Transforming Early Gothic Form: The Cistercian Church of Pontigny, Saint-Martin at Chablis, and Northern Burgundian Architecture" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2005).
30
my "Transforming Early Gothic Form"
31
Caroline Bruzelius, "The Transept of the Abbey Church of Châalis and the Filiation of Pontigny," Mélanges à la mémoire du père Anselme Dimier, vol. 6 (Pupillin, France, 1982), 453
36
n. 16
39
Alain Erlande-Brandenburg, Notre-Dame de Paris (New York, 1998), 88.
Caroline Bruzelius in "The Construction of Notre-Dame in Paris," Art Bulletin 69 (1989), 556, fig. 21b (profiles N5-N8).
40
Jean Bony, French Gothic Architecture of the 12th and 13th Centuries (Berkeley, 1993), 153.
41
John James, The Creation of Gothic Architecture—An Illustrated Thesaurus: The Ark of God, PartA-The Evolution of Foliate Capitals in the Paris Basin 1110-1250 (Sydney, 2004)
James, Template-Makers, 44
n. 17
Denise Jalabert, "La Flore gothique. Ses origines, son évolution," Bulletin Monumental 2 (1932), 203.
42
Bony, French Gothic, 164.
43
Branner, Burgundian Gothic, 6
n. 1
46
n. 22
48
Dieter Kimpel, "La Taille des pierres sur les chantiers d'églises," Pierre et métal dans le bâtiment au moyen age (Paris, 1985), 209-17.
49
James, Template-Makers, 143-78.
50
C. Edson Armi, Masons and Sculptors in Romanesque Burgundy (University Park, Penn., 1983).
Eugène Lefèvre-Pontalis, "Répertoire des architectes, maçons, sculp- teurs, charpentiers et ouvriers français au Xle et au Xlle siècle," Bulletin Monumental (1911), 126
Victor Mortet and Paul Deschamps, Recueil de textes relatifs à Vhistoire de l'architecture et à la condition des architectes en France au moyen age, XII-XIIIe siècles (1929; repr., Paris, 1995)
Nikolaus Pevsner, "The Term 'Architect' in the Middle Ages," Speculum 17 (1942), 549-62
Marcel Aubert, "La Construction au moyen age," Bulletin Monumental 118 (1960), 241-59
119 (1961), 7-42, 81-120, 181-209, 297-323
Pierre du Colombier, Les Chantiers des Cathédrales. Ouvriers, architectes, sculp- teurs (Pans, 1973).
51
Charles M. Radding and William W. Clark, Medieval Architecture, Medieval Learning: Builders and Masters in the Age of Romanesque and Gothic (New Haven, 1992).
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