The present article concerns the early-twentieth-century avant-garde's aestheticizing of a new vision occasioned by the advent of human flight. It focuses on the project that best reflects this vision: the Futurama, an exhibit created by the American industrial designer Norman Bel Geddes for the 1939 New York World's Fair. The Futurama's status as the "number one hit show" of the fair derived largely from its theatrical technique of seeing: spectators literally gazed down on an American utopia as if they were aviators in a low-flying airplane. Conceived during the golden age of American aviation, in the 1920s and 1930s, the Futurama exemplified the common utopian belief that the perspective from an airplane would usher in new spatial dynamics that would introduce the city of the future. The enthusiasm for aerial vision evinced a remarkable affiliation between aviation and a modernist logic of looking at the world. The fact that the Futurama spectator's aerial viewing became enmeshed in broader conceptualizations of twentieth-century visuality reveals the crucial presence of what could be called an "aesthetics of ascension" in the avantgarde imagination of the future city.

Notes

Notes
1
Gallup poll in April/May 1939
General Motors press release, 30 May 1939, and file 381.48
2
Miracle in the Evening: An Autobiography, ed. William Kelley (New York, 1960)
Kelley
Miracle in the Evening: An Autobiography
1960
"Profiles: Design fora Living-I, II, and III," New Yorker, 8, 15
8
New Yorker
22 Feb. 1941, 24-28, 22-29, and 26-30, 33, 34
Jeffrey I- Meikle, "Norman Bel Geddes: A Portrait,"
Arthur Pulos, "Design Horizons," Rassegna 60 (winter 1994)
Pulos
winter
60
Rassegna
1994
Jennifer Davis Roberts, Norman Bel Geddes: An Exhibition of Theatrical and Industrial Designs (Austin, 1979)
Roberts
Norman Bel Geddes: An Exhibition of Theatrical and Industrial Designs
1979
3
Donald J. Bush, "Futu- rama: Worlds Fair as Utopia," Alternative Futures 2 (fall 1979), 3-20
Bush
3
2
Alternative Futures
1979
Bar- bara Hauss-Fitton, "Futurama, New York World's Fair 1939-1940," Rassegna 60 (spring 1994), 54-69
Hauss-Fitton
spring
54
60
Rassegna
1994
Roland Marchand, "The Designers (Jo to the Fair II: Norman Bel (ieddes, The General Motors' 'Futurama', and the Visit to the Factory Transformed," Design Issues 8 (spring 1992), 23-4010.2307/1511638
23
5
Meikle, "Norman Bel Geddes,"
Pulos, "Design Horizons,"
Hauss-Fitton, "Futurama, New York World's Fair 1939-40."
George R. Collins, "Broadacre City: Wright's Utopia Reconsidered," in Four Great Makers of Modern Architecture (New York, 1970)
Collins
Broadacre City: Wright's Utopia Reconsidered
Four Great Makers of Modern Architecture
1970
"World of Tomorrow," New York Times, inaugural World's Fair section (Mar. 1939)
Mar.
New York Times
1939
The Shape of Things to Come (New York, 1933)
The Shape of Things to Come
1933
6
Charles A. Beard, The Rise of American Civilization (New York, 1928), 831
Beard
831
The Rise of American Civilization
1928
Charles A. Beard, ed., A Century of Progress (New York, 1933)
Beard
A Century of Progress
1933
I. F. Clark, The Pattern of Expectation 1644-2001 (New York, 1979)
Clark
The Pattern of Expectation 1644-2001
1979
Sheldon Cheney and Martha Candler Cheney, Art and the Machine, An Account of Industrial Design in 20th-century America (New York, 1936)
Cheney
Art and the Machine, An Account of Industrial Design in 20th-century America
1936
Stuart Chase, Men and Machines (New York, 1929)
Chase
Men and Machines
1929
Thomas Hughes, Ameiican Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiami, 1870-1970 (New York, 1989)
Hughes
Ameiican Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiami, 1870-1970
1989
7
"St. Louis: A Model City of the Future," 2, file 381.48, NBG Col- lection, HRC
8
Norman Bel (ieddes, Magic Motonrays (New York, 1940), 211.
Geddes
211
Magic Motonrays
1940
9
"Spectator's Transportation System" and "Description of the Conveyor Ride Models," files 381.30 and 381:31, NBG Collection, HRC
10
File 381.42, NBG Collection, HRC.
file 381.7 (2 Nov. 1938), NBG Collection, HRC
11
"General Caption," file 381.48, NBG Collection, HRC.
Mar- chand, "The Designers Go to the Fair II," 33.
Marchand
33
The Designers Go to the Fair II
12
File 381.19e, folder 51, NBG Collection, HRC.
13
"Caption Material," file 381.48, NBG Collection, HRC.
14
File 381.48, 6-10, NBG Collection, HRC.
15
Warren Susman, "The People's Fair: Cultural Contradictions of a Con- sumer Society," in Helen Harrison, ed., Dawn of a New Day: The New York World's Fair, 1939/40 (New York, 1980), 22.
Susman
The People's Fair: Cultural Contradictions of a Consumer Society
22
Dawn of a New Day: The New York World's Fair, 1939/40
1980
16
Marchand, "The Designers Go to the Fair II," 24-25.
Marchand
24
The Designers Go to the Fair II
Roland Marchand, Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Moder- nity, 1920-1940 (Berkeley, 1986)
Marchand
Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940
1986
17
File 381.3, 6, NBG Collection, HRC.
19
"The World's Largest Rendering" and "General Caption," file 381.48, 1-2, NBG Collection, HRC.
20
Michel de Certeau, "Walking in the City," The Prac- tice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall (Berkeley, 1984)
de Certeau
Walking in the City
The Practice of Everyday Life
1984
M. Christine Boyer has noted the nineteenth-century roots of "Godlike" vision inherent in unified modern planning in The City of Collective Memoty, Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments (Cambridge, Mass., 1994), 15
Boyer
15
The City of Collective Memoty, Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments
1994
21
Friedrich Nietzsche, "Zarathustra's Prologue," Thus Spoke Zarathnstra, trans. R.J. Hollingdale (New York, 1961)
Nietzsche
Zarathustra's Prologue
Thus Spoke Zarathnstra
1961
22
Jean le Rond d'Alemberts Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot (1751), trans. Richard N. Schwab and Walter F. Rex (New York, 1963), 43-45
d'Alembert
43
Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot (1751)
1963
23
I lubert Damisch, Skyline: The Sarcissistic City, Cultural Memory in the Present, trans. John Goldman (Stanford, 2001), 11-15
Damisch
11
Skyline: The Sarcissistic City, Cultural Memory in the Present
2001
24
Thomas Mores Utopia (1516)
More
Utopia
1516
Fdward Bellamys Looking Backward (1888)
Bellamy
Looking Backward
1888
Wells's The Shape of Things to Conic (1933)
Wells
The Shape of Things to Conic
1933
Krishan Kumar, "Utopia and Anti-Utopia in the 'Iwentieth Century," in Roland Schaer, Gregory Claeys, and Lyman 'lower Sargent, eds., Utopia, The Search for the Ideal Society in the Western World (New York and Oxford, 2000), 251-52
Kumar
Utopia and Anti-Utopia in the 'Iwentieth Century
251
Utopia, The Search for the Ideal Society in the Western World
2000
25
Mores Utopia: "Thomas More himself could not get straight the exact length of the bridge that spanned the River Anydrus as Amaurotum in Utopia."
Frank F. and Fritzie R Manuel, Utopian Thought in the Western World (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), 5
Frank
5
Utopian Thought in the Western World
1979
Jean Pfaelzer, "The Impact of Political The- ory on Narrative Structures," in Kenneth M. Roemer, ed., America as Utopia (New York, 1981), 117
Pfaelzer
The Impact of Political Theory on Narrative Structures
117
America as Utopia
1981
26
Leni Riefenstahl's propaganda film, triumph of the Will (1934)
27
Folke Kihlstedt, "Utopia Realized" in Joseph Corn, ed., Imagining Tomorrow: History, Technology, and the American Future (Cambridge, Mass., 1986), 97
Kihlstedt
Utopia Realized
97
Imagining Tomorrow: History, Technology, and the American Future
1986
Anthony Sutcliffe, ed., Metropo- lis, 1890-1940 (Chicago, 1984), 169
Sutcliffe
169
Metropolis, 1890-1940
1984
28
Joseph Corn, The Winged Gospel: America's Romance with Aviation, 1900-1950 (New York, 1983)
Corn
The Winged Gospel: America's Romance with Aviation, 1900-1950
1983
Robert Wohl, A Passion for Wings: Aviation and the Western Imagination, 1908-1918 (New Haven and London, 1994)
Wohl
A Passion for Wings: Aviation and the Western Imagination, 1908-1918
1994
Stephen Kern, The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 (Cambridge, Mass., 1983)
Kern
The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918
1983
C. R. Roseberry, The Challenging Skies: The Colorful Story of Aviation's Most Exciting Years, 1919-1939 (New York, 1966)
Roseberry
The Challenging Skies: The Colorful Story of Aviation's Most Exciting Years, 1919-1939
1966
29
Wohl, A Passion for Wings, 261.
Wohl
261
A Passion for Wings
30
Paul Virilio, War and Cinema (1984
Virilio
War and Cinema
1984
London and New York, 1989), 17
Wohl, A Passion for Wings, 255
Wohl
255
A Passion for Wings
Beau- mont Newhall, Airborne Camera: The World from the Air and Outer Space (New York, 1969)
Newhall
Airborne Camera: The World from the Air and Outer Space
1969
31
Anthony Vidler, "Photourbanism: Planning the City from Above and from Below," in Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, eds., A Companion to the City (Oxford, 2000).
Vidler
Photourbanism: Planning the City from Above and from Below
A Companion to the City
2000
32
Futurist Manifesto. R. W. Flint, ed., Marinetti: Selected Writings (London, 1971), 88
Manifesto
88
Marinetti: Selected Writings
1971
Wohl, A Passion for Wings; Kern, The Culture of Time and Space
John Elderfield, Peter Reed, Mary Chan, and Maria Del Carmen Gonzalez, eds., Modernstarts: People, Places, Things (New York, 2000), 253-57
Elderfield
253
Modernstarts: People, Places, Things
2000
Gertrude Stein, Picasso: The Complete Writings (1938
Stein
Picasso: The Complete Writings
1938
New York, 1984), 49-50
33
Le Corbusier's L'Avion accuse, published as Aircraft (London, 1935)
Le Corbusier
Aircraft
1935
Bauhaus pedagogue László Moholy-Nagy for his book The New Vision, 1928 (New York, 1947)
Moholy-Nagy
The New Vision, 1928
1947
34
Le Corbusier, Aircraft, 11.
Le Corbusier
11
Aircraft
35
Adnan Morshed, "The Cultural Politics of Aerial Vision: Le Corbusier in Brazil (1929)," Journal of Architectural Education 55 (May 2002), 201-10.10.2307/1425721
201
36
Fritz Wiehert, "Airship Travel and Architecture," Frankfurter Zeitung, 21 Mar. 1909
Wiehert
Mar.
21
Frankfurter Zeitung
1909
Tilmann Buddensieg, Industriekultur: Peter Behrens and the AEG, 1907-1914, trans. Iain Boyd Whyte (Cambridge, Mass., 1984)
Buddensieg
Industriekultur: Peter Behrens and the AEG, 1907-1914
1984
37
Ulrich Conrads and Hans G. Sperlich, The Architecture of Fantasy (New York, 1962)
Conrads
The Architecture of Fantasy
1962
38
Sutcliffe, Metropolis, 169 (see n. 27).
39
Allan Sekula, "The Instrumental Image: Steichen at War," Photog- raphy Against the Grain: Essays and Photo Works, 1973-1983 (Halifax, 1984), 33-51.
Sekula
The Instrumental Image: Steichen at War
33
Photography Against the Grain: Essays and Photo Works, 1973-1983
1984
40
G H. Birdseye, "Aerial Mapping by the Geological Survey," Aerial Age (May 1923), 23-32
Birdseye
May
23
Aerial Age
1923
James H. Hare, "Aerial Photography: A New Art," Flying (May 1914), 101-5
Hare
May
101
Flying
1914
Guy Hayler, "The Aeroplane and City Plan- ning," American City 23 (Dec. 1920), 575-79
Hayler
Dec.
575
23
American City
1920
Nelson Lewis, "A New Aid in City Planning," American City Magazine 26 (Mar. 1922), 209-12
Lewis
Mar.
209
26
American City Magazine
1922
41
Crockett A. Harrison, "Making Maps from the Air," MIT Technology Review (Dec. 1930), 127-30, 149-50
Harrison
Dec.
127
MIT Technology Review
1930
42
Sherman M. Fairchild, "Aerial Photography, Its Development and Future," American Academy of Political and Social Science, Aviation 131 (1927), 50-51
Fairchild
50
131
American Academy of Political and Social Science, Aviation
1927
Fairchild, Winged Surveyors: What Aerial Photography Is Doing for Industry (New York, 1922)
Fairchild
Winged Surveyors: What Aerial Photography Is Doing for Industry
1922
43
Mary F. Burt, "Aeronautics Will Develop a Broader Vision," Fly- ing 4 (1915), 697, 711
Burt
697
4
Flying
1915
Clayton D. Russell, "Seeing Things from Above", Crafts-men Aero News 1 (1937), 2, 7-8
Russell
2
1
Crafts-men Aero News
1937
Marcella Holtkamp, "A Bit of Philosophy on Flying," Air Travel News 3 (1929), 21-22
Holtkamp
21
3
Air Travel News
1929
44
Roland Barthes, The Eiffel Tower and Other Mythologies (1979), trans. Richard Howard (Berkeley, 1997), 8-9.
Barthes
8
The Eiffel Tower and Other Mythologies
1979
45
Ibid., 9.
46
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Francis Galton (1822-1911)
Fortune, Life, and Popular Mechanics
Wolfgang Pehnt, "The 'New Man' and the Architecture of the Twenties," in Jeannine Fiedler, ed., Social Utopias of the Twenties: Bauhaus, Kibbutz and the Dream of the New Man (Dessau, 1995)
Pehnt
The 'New Man' and the Architecture of the Twenties
Social Utopias of the Twenties: Bauhaus, Kibbutz and the Dream of the New Man
1995
Christina Cogdell, "The Futurama Recontextualized: Norman Bel Geddes's Fugenic 'World of Tomorrow,' "American Quarterly 52 (June 2000), 193-245
Cogdell
June
193
52
American Quarterly
2000
Marouf Arif Hasian, Jr., The Rhetoric of Eugenics in Anglo-American Thought (Athens, Ga., 1996)
Hasian
The Rhetoric of Eugenics in Anglo-American Thought
1996
Ralph F. Flanders, "The New Age and the New Man," in Charles Beard, ed., Toward Civilization (Lon- don, 1930), 21-37
Flanders
The New Age and the New Man
21
Toward Civilization
1930
Anthony E. Rotundo, American Manhood: Transfor- mations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era (New York, 1993)
Rotundo
American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era
1993
Stanley Weinbaum, The New Adam (Chicago and New York, 1939)
Weinbaum
The New Adam
1939
William Olaf Stapledon, Odd John (London, 1935)
Stapledon
Odd John
1935
47
Lindbergh's autobiog- raphy, "We" (New York, 1927)
Lindbergh
We
1927
48
John Ward, "The Meaning of Lindbergh's Flight," in Ward, Red, White, and Blue: Men, Books, and Ideas in American Culture (New York, 1969), 26.
Ward
The Meaning of Lindbergh's Flight
26
Ward, Red, White, and Blue: Men, Books, and Ideas in American Culture
1969
49
Ibid.
50
Dixon Wecter, The Hero in America (New York, 1941), 422-44
Wecter
422
The Hero in America
1941
51
Les Daniels, Superman Masterpiece Edition: The Golden Age of America's First Super Hero (New York, 1998)
Daniels
Superman Masterpiece Edition: The Golden Age of America's First Super Hero
1998
James S. Hans, The Origins of the Gods (New York, 1991)
Hans
The Origins of the Gods
1991
Umberto Eco, "The Myth of the Superman" Diacritics 2 (spring 1972), 14-2210.2307/464920
14
Sam Moskowitz, Explorers of the Infinite, Shapers of'Science Fiction (Cleveland and New York, 1957)
Moskowitz
Explorers of the Infinite, Shapers of'Science Fiction
1957
52
Brian Stableford, "Marriage of Science and Fiction," in Robert Holdstock, ed., Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (London, 1978), 20-27
Stableford
Marriage of Science and Fiction
20
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
1978
53
Leo Henkin, Darwinism in the English Novel, 1860-1910: The Impact of Evolution on Victorian Fiction (New York, 1963)
Henkin
Darwinism in the English Novel, 1860-1910: The Impact of Evolution on Victorian Fiction
1963
54
Thomas M. Disch, The Dreams Our Stuff Is Made Of: How Science Fic- tion Conquered the World (New York, 1998), 62.
Disch
62
The Dreams Our Stuff Is Made Of: How Science Fiction Conquered the World
1998
55
Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathus- tra: A Book for All and None, trans. Thomas Commom (New York, 1911)
Nietzsche
Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None
1911
Wells, The Shape of Things to Come (see n. 5)
Moholy-Nagy, The New Vision (see n. 33)
Le Corbusier, The City of To-morrow and Its Planning, intro. by Frederick Etchells (New York, 1929)
Corbusier
The City of To-morrow and Its Planning
1929
Le Corbusier, Towards a New Archi- tecture, intro. by Frederick Etchells (New York, 1927)
Corbusier
Towards a New Architecture
1927
Hugh Ferriss, The Metropolis of'Tomorrow (New York, 1929)
Ferriss
The Metropolis of'Tomorrow
1929
56
Norman Bel Geddes, Horizons (Boston, 1932), 8.
Geddes
8
Horizons
1932
57
Ibid., 4.
58
Ibid., 292.
59
Ibid., 19-20.
60
Ibid., 276-77.
Bel Geddes noted: "The qualities that account for the appeal in experiencing a painting by Manet, a score by Beethoven, the Great Pyramid, Pavlova's dancing, Shakespeare's writing, those qualities which invade the subconscious, stir us deeply, linger in the memory, can only be defined as emotional. The qualities that make one steamship, vase, airplane, or skyscraper appeal to us, while another does not, are of the same nature" (20-21)
61
Cheney and Cheney, Art and the Machine, 16 (see n. 6).
62
Cheney and Cheney, Art and the Machine; I. F. Clarke, The Pattern of Expectation, 1644-2001 (New York, 1979)
Cheney
The Pattern of Expectation, 1644-2001
1979
Bruno Laut, Modern Architecture (New York, 1929)
Bruno Laut
Modern Architecture
1929
Erich Mendelsohn, "The Problem of a New Arch," in Mendelsohn, Erich Mendel- sohn, Complete Works of the Architect, trans. Antje Fritsch (New York, 1992)
Mendelsohn
The Problem of a New Arch
Erich Mendelsohn, Complete Works of the Architect
1992
Raymond Loewy, Industrial Design (New York, 1979)
Loewy
Industrial Design
1979
Jeffrey L. Meikle, Twentieth Century Limited, Industrial Design in America, 1925-1939 (Philadelphia, 1979)
Meikle
Twentieth Century Limited, Industrial Design in America, 1925-1939
1979
Donald J. Bush, The Streamlined Decade (New York, 1975)
Bush
The Streamlined Decade
1975
63
Loewy, Industrial Design, 74-76.
Loewy
74
Industrial Design
64
file 381, NBG Collection, HRC.
65
Bel Geddes, Horizons, 280.
Geddes
280
Horizons
66
Ibid., 280.
67
Ibid., 281.
68
Bel Geddes spelled out his concept of the Man of Tomorrow in an auto- biographical essay, "The Man of Tomorrow . . . Today," Info, no. 4, 7 Apr. 1939.
Geddes
4
Info
1939
69
Linda Henderson has shown in The Fourth Dimension and Non-Euclidean Geamefty in Modem Art (Princeton, 1983)
Henderson
The Fourth Dimension and Non-Euclidean Geamefty in Modem Art
1983
A Primer of Higher Space (Rochester, N.Y., 1913)
A Primer of Higher Space
1913
Robert Williams demonstrated in Artists in Revolution: Portraits of the Russian Avant- Garde, 1905-192) (Indiana, 1977)
Williams
Artists in Revolution: Portraits of the Russian Avant Garde, 1905-192)
1977
70
"Pro- files: Design for a Living-I," 24 (see n. 2)
71
file 328: 17, 1-3, NBG Collection, HRC
72
File 328.1, NBG Collection, HRC.
73
Paul Virilio, Open Sky, trans. Julie Rose (London and New York, 1997), 1-2.
Virilio
1
Open Sky
1997
Conrads and Sperlich, The Architecture of Fantasy (see n. 37)
Christian W. Thomsen, Visionary Architecture: From Babylon to Virtual Reality (Munich and New York, 1994)
Thomsen
Visionary Architecture: From Babylon to Virtual Reality
1994
74
Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726)
Gulliver
Travels
1726
75
Italo Calvino, Six Memos for the Next Millennium (New York, 1988), 7.
Calvino
7
Six Memos for the Next Millennium
1988
76
Conrads and Sperlich, The Architecture of Fantasy, 18
Conrads
18
The Architecture of Fantasy
1924
77
file 169.1, NBG Collection, HRC
Roberts, Norman Bel Geddes, 23 (see n. 2)
78
Martin Heidegger, "The Origin of the Work of Art," in Heidegger, Poetry, Language, Thought (New York, 1975), 17-87.
Heidegger
The Origin of the Work of Art
17
Heidegger, Poetry, Language, Thought
1975
79
Paul A. Carter, The Creation of Tomorrow: Fifty Years of Magazine Science Fiction (New York, 1977), 3-5
Carter
3
The Creation of Tomorrow: Fifty Years of Magazine Science Fiction
1977
80
Kathleen Church Plummer, "The Streamlined Moderne," Art in America 62 (Jan.-Feb. 1974), 46-54.
Plummer
Jan.
46
62
Art in America
1974
81
Minutes of the review meeting (21 Jan. 1930) are in file 169.1, NBG Collection, HRC.
82
Tom Mead, "Revolving Café, 278 Feet in the Air, Is Plan for Pair: Unique Structure Designed for Century of Progress," Chicago Daily Sews, n.d., file 169, NBG Collection, HRC
Mead
Chicago Daily Sews
83
The Museum of the City of New York, Drawing the Future: Design Drawings for the 1939 New York World's Fair (New York, 1996), 12
The Museum of the City of New York
12
Drawing the Future: Design Drawings for the 1939 New York World's Fair
1996
84
File 356, NBG Collection, HRC.
Jeffrey Meikle, The City of Tomorrow: Model 1937 (London, 1984)
Meikle
The City of Tomorrow: Model 1937
1984
85
Meikle, The City of'lbmorrow, 5-8
Meikle
5
The City of'lbmorrow
87
Meikle, The City of Tomorrow, 22.
Meikle
22
The City of Tomorrow
88
Ibid., 23.
89
Meikle, Twentieth Century Limited, 208 (see n. 62)
90
Ibid.
91
Larry Zim, Mel Lerner, and Herbert Rolfes, The World of' Tomorrow: The 1939 New York Worlds Fair (New York, 1988), 226.
Zim
226
The World of' Tomorrow: The 1939 New York Worlds Fair
1988
92
Scott Bukatman, Mat- ters of Gravity: Special Effects and Supermen in the 20th Century (Durham, N.d, 2003)
Bukatman
Matters of Gravity: Special Effects and Supermen in the 20th Century
2003
Sutcliffe, "The Metropolis in the Cinema," in Sut- cliffe, Metropolis, 169
Sutcliffe
169
Sutcliffe, Metropolis
Sutcliffe, "one may reason- ably presume that the flying abilities of these heroes were developed in the original comic-strips to facilitate a three-dimensional relationship with the skyscrapers of the New York location which (albeit thinly disguised as 'Metropolis' or 'Gotham City') pervaded these stories."
93
Lawrence W. Levine, "American Culture and the Great Depres- sion," Yale Review 74 (1985), 220-21
Levine
220
74
Yale Review
1985
94
Thomas Andrae, "From Menace to Messiah: The History and Historicity of Super- man," in Donald Lazure, ed., American Media and Mass Culture: Left Per- spectives (Berkeley, 1987), 124-38
Andrae
From Menace to Messiah: The History and Historicity of Superman
124
American Media and Mass Culture: Left Perspectives
1987
95
Bukatman, Matters of Gravity, 286-87.
Bukatman
286
Matters of Gravity
98
Julian Petley, "The Architect as Übermensch," in Philip Hayward, Picture This: Media Representations of Visual Art and Artists (London, 1988)
Petley
The Architect as Übermensch
Picture This: Media Representations of Visual Art and Artists
1988
Andrew Saint, "The Architect as Hero and Genius," in Saint, The Image of the Architect (New Haven, 1983)
Saint
The Architect as Hero and Genius
Saint, The Image of the Architect
1983
99
De Certeau, "Walking in the City," 94-95 (see n. 20).
100
Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead (New York, 1943)
Rand
The Fountainhead
1943
Frank Lloyd Wright, reverentially salutes "the great profession of architecture and its heroes" (14)
101
Sigfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition (1941
Giedion
Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition
1941
Cambridge, Mass., 1959
Colin Rowe, The Archi- tecture of Good Intentions: Towards a Possible Retrospect (London, 1994), 30-43
Rowe
30
The Architecture of Good Intentions: Towards a Possible Retrospect
1994
103
clipping "Norman Bel Geddes, Designer of the Fair's Number One I lit Show" and press release, 17 Apr. 1939, file 381.48, NBG Collection, HRC
104
File 381.48, 2-3, NBG Collection, HRC.
105
clipping "The World's Largest Rendering," file 381.48, 2-3, NBG Collection, HRC
106
clippings "Pro- posed System for General Motors Fxhibit at N.Y. Worlds Fair of 1939" and "Synchronized Sound Description of the City of Ibmorrow and Super- highway System," file 381.32, NBG Collection, HRC
107
"Motoring at 100 M.P.H.," Business Week, 9 Sept. 1939, 27-28.
9 Sept.
27
Business Week
1939
108
Futu- rama, publicity brochure, NBG Collection, HRC
109
Ibid.
110
James Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston, 1979), 197.
Gibson
197
The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception
1979
111
clipping "St. Louis, A Model City of the Future," file 381.48, 1, NBG Collection, HRC.
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