In this paper, I analyze several early-twentieth-century attempts to reprint, edit, and annotate a Northern Song dynasty (960-1127) construction manual, the Yingzao fashi (1103), each one revealing an aspect of the project to define Chinese architecture. As manifested in the research on the Yingzao fashi by a number of Chinese scholars and architects, the project to reconstitute and understand the text was closely connected to broader intellectual issues in early-twentieth-century China: nationalism, philological scholarship, and modern historiography. The Yingzao fashi was rediscovered in 1919 by politician and scholar Zhu Qiqian, who saw it as an important text that provided crucial knowledge of the tradition of Chinese architecture. It also became a central document in the construction of a modern Chinese architectural history by Liang Sicheng, Lin Huiyin, and Liu Dunzhen, which was founded on a historiography strongly influenced by the European Enlightenment tradition. Interest in the Yingzao fashi declined in the latter half of the twentieth century due to a Communist cultural policy germinated at Yan'an in the 1940s. The reappearance of the Yingzao fashi in the early twentieth century played a much broader intellectual role than the book originally had as a manual of construction and administration.

Notes

Notes
1
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Jiang
Shanghai bainianjianzhushi, 1840-1949
1997
Peter G. Rowe and Seng Kuan, Archi- tectural Encounters with Essence and Form in Modern China (Cambridge, Mass., 2002)
Rowe
Architectural Encounters with Essence and Form in Modern China
2002
John King Fairbank and Merle Goldman, China, A New His- tory (Cambridge, Mass., 1998)
Fairbank
China, A New History
1998
Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Mod- ern China (New York and London, 1990)
Spence
The Search for Modern China
1990
2
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Xing
Mar.
30
61
JSAH
2002
Wen-hsin Yeh, The Alienated Academy: Culture and Politics in Republican China, 1919-1937 (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1990)
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The Alienated Academy: Culture and Politics in Republican China, 1919-1937
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3
Jeff W. Cody, Building in China: Henry K. Murphy's "Adaptive Architec- ture," 1914-1935 (Hong Kong, 2001).
Cody
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2001
4
Joseph R. Levenson, Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and the Mind of Modern China (Cam- bridge, Mass., 1953).
Levenson
Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and the Mind of Modern China
1953
5
Liang Sicheng, preface to Yingzaofashi zhushi (Annotations of the Yingzao fashi) (Beijing, 1983), 5-12
Sicheng
5
Yingzaofashi zhushi
1983
Else Glahn, "Unfolding the Chinese Building Standards: Research on the Yingzaofashi," in Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, ed., Traditional Chinese Architecture (New York, 1984), 48-57
Glahn
Unfolding the Chinese Building Standards: Research on the Yingzaofashi
48
Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt
1984
Guo Qinghua, "Yingzao Fashi: Twelfth-Century Chinese Building Manual," Architectural History 41 (1998), 1-1310.2307/1568644
1
6
Fairbank and Goldman, China, A New History, 88-95
Fairbank
88
China, A New History
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Kiang
The Song Cityscape
117
Heng, Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Cityscapes
1999
Jacques Gernet, Daily Life in China at the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276, trans. H. M. Wright (London, 1962)
Gernet
Daily Life in China at the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276
1962
7
Nancy S. Steinhardt, ed., Chinese Architecture (New Haven and London; Beijing, 2002), 187-89.
Steinhardt
187
Chinese Architecture
2002
8
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Ming
114
1
Zhongguo xiandaishi ziliao xuanji
1987
10
Christoph Harbsmeier and Joseph Needham, Science and Civilization in China, vol. 7, pt. 1 (Cambridge, England, 1998).
Harbsmeier
7
Science and Civilization in China
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11
Qing court tried to revive the college in 1902
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Subin
Zhongguo jianzhu jiaoyu de yuandian
207
1
Zhongguojindaijianzhuyanjiu yu baohu
1999
12
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Ouyou xinying lu
2968
Liang Qichao quanji
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13
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Qiqian
1
1
Bulletin of the Society for the Research in Chinese Architecture
1930
14
Torsten Warner, German Architecture in China: Architectural Transfer (Berlin, 1994), 156-66.
Warner
156
German Architecture in China: Architectural Transfer
1994
15
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Wenji
Mianhuai xianzu Zhu Qiqian
50
Huogongjishi
1991
16
Warner, German Architecture in China, 164-65.
Warner
164
German Architecture in China
17
Cody, Building in China, 34-85 (see n. 3).
Cody
34
Building in China
18
Harry Hussey, My Pleasures and Palaces: An Informal Memoir of Forty Years in Modern China (New York, 1968), 229.
Hussey
229
My Pleasures and Palaces: An Informal Memoir of Forty Years in Modern China
1968
19
Curt Rothkegel for his book The Wall and Gates of Peking (Lon- don, 1924)
Rothkegel
The Wall and Gates of Peking
1924
Zhu's own account of the project mentions "improve- ments" on "inappropriate features of old buildings," in "Xiugai Jingshi qiansanmen chengyuan gongcheng cheng" (Report on the renovation of the walls of the three front gates of Beijing), in Ye, Huogongjishi, 17-18
Zhu
improvements" on "inappropriate features of old buildings," in "Xiugai Jingshi qiansanmen chengyuan gongcheng cheng
17
Huogongjishi
Warner, German Architecture in China, 28
Warner
28
German Architecture in China
20
Warner, German Architecture in China, 34.
Warner
34
German Architecture in China
21
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Bingtian
Zhu Qiqian yu gongyihui kaifa Beidaihe haibin
104
Huogongjishi
22
Ye, Huogongjishi, 127.
Ye
127
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23
Zhu, "Inaugral [sic] Address," 1.
24
Boerschmann joined Zhu's Society for Research in Chinese Architecture in 1932
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Zhu
129
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1995
25
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Rowe
Architectural Encounters
2002
28
Spence, The Search for Modern China, 179 (see n. 1).
Spence
179
The Search for Modern China
1990
29
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Guanying
Shengshi weiyan
Zheng Guanyingji
1982
30
Zhongxing coal mine in Shandong province, from 1916 to 1937
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Zuoxian
Zhu Qiqian yu Zhongxing meikuang gongsi
151
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31
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187
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32
Ibid., 184-211.
33
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2000
34
Ibid., 105-7
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Boorman
Biographical Dictionary of Republican China
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35
Zhu Qiqian, preface to Tao Xiang, ed., Li Mingzhong Yingzaofashi (The Yingzao Fashi by Li Mingzhong), 8 vols. (n. p., 1925).
Qiqian
Li Mingzhong Yingzaofashi
1925
36
Hussey, My Pleasures and Palaces, 229, 238 (see n. 18)
Hussey
229
My Pleasures and Palaces
1968
37
Zhu Qiqian, preface to Shiyin Song Li Mingzhong Yingzaofashi (A photo- lithographic reprint of the Yingzao Fashi by Li Mingzhong of the Song Dynasty) (1919).
Qiqian
preface to Shiyin Song Li Mingzhong Yingzaofashi
1919
38
"Today's proportional drafting method" (jinjiehua bili zhifa)
Hussey observed that Zhu was proficient in reading modern architectural drawings when he examined the drawings of the Peking Union Medical College in 1918
Hussey, My Pleasures and Palaces, 229
Hussey
229
My Pleasures and Palaces
39
Zhu, preface to Li Mingzhong Yingzaofashi.
40
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Ren
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n. 2
44
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Qingdai xueshu gailun
3066
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45
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Ren
1700
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Lin
139
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4
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Demiéville
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2
Bulletin of the Society for Research in Chinese Architecture
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Xiang
Shiyu
8
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Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies
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97
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13
Kexue
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57
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58
James Fergusson, History of Indian and Eastern Architecture (London, 1876), viii
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History of Indian and Eastern Architecture
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1999
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Zhongtai
7
Zhongguo jianzhu shi
1937
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Fergusson, History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 688
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688
History of Indian and Eastern Architecture
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Yidong
7
Zhongguo jianzhu shi
62
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Riben dui Zhongguo chengshi yujianzhu de yanjiu
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247
Architecture and Authority in Japan
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81
Riben dui Zhongguo chengshiyujianzhu deyanjiu
65
Ernst Boerschmann, Chinesische Architecktur (Berlin, 1925)
Boerschmann
Chinesische Architecktur
1925
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Sirén
The Wall and Gates of Peking
1924
66
Liang Sicheng, preface to Yingzaofashi zhushi, 8 (see n. 5)
Sicheng
8
preface to Yingzaofashi zhushi
1935
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Zhu
Jianzhushi Liang Sicheng
1996
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Fairbank
Liang and Lin: Partners in Exploring China's Architectural Past
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67
Liang Sicheng, preface to Yingzaofashi zhushi, 11.
Sicheng
11
Yingzaofashi zhushi
68
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Middleton
The Beaux-Arts and Nineteenth-Century French Architecture
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Paul Philippe Cret: Architect and Teacher
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Grossman
The Civic Architecture of Paul Cret
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1933
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316
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2000
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71
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Sicheng
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5
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4
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7
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76
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Fairbank
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Liang and Lin
1994
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106
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80
Lu Xun Arts Academy formed a folk dance troupe (yanggedui) with 150 dancers
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Gao
256
Yan'an zhengfeng shilu
81
Zhang Yuhuan's note on the context of Liang Sicheng's letter of 19 September 1956
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Yongsheng
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