Louis Sullivan's proposals for remodeling the First National Bank Building (1919-1922) in Manistique, Michigan, were executed in part. They reveal his underappreciated ability to bring order to someone else's design chaos by skillfully manipulating the tiniest of details. They also suggest that after his partnership with Dankmar Adler ended in 1895 he refined a vocabulary of façade composition meant to differentiate commercial structures according to program. When newly available archival material is fully exploited, it will likely reveal a good deal more about this neglected building, which was not only Sullivan's sole bank remodeling but also proof that as his career came to a close his ornament remained as powerful as ever.

Notes

Notes
1
Lauren S. Weingarden, Louis H. Sullivan: The Banks (Cambridge, Mass., 1987)
Weingarden
Louis H. Sullivan: The Banks
1987
Wim de Wit, "The Image of Progressive Banking," in de Wit, ed., Louis Sullivan: The Function of Ornament (New York, 1986), 159-197
de Wit
The Image of Progressive Banking
159
Louis Sullivan: The Function of Ornament
1986
Twombly and Menocal, Louis Sullivan: The Poetry of Architecture (New York, 2000)
Twombly
Louis Sullivan: The Poetry of Architecture
2000
3
Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, ed., Frank Lloyd Wright: Letters to Architects (Fresno, 1984), 11, 12.
Pfeiffer
11
Frank Lloyd Wright: Letters to Architects
1984
4
The Hasbroucks donated both sets to The Art Institute, Chicago, in 1993.
5
Twombly and Menocal, Poetry of Architecture, pls. 228-23 3
Twombly
Poetry of Architecture
6
Manistique Courier-Record, 3 June 1920. Crowe mentioned the cost in his 1958 interview with Nickel
3 June
Courier-Record
1958
7
Sullivan to Wright, 4 April 1920, in Pfeiffer, ed., Letters, 17.
Pfeiffer
17
Letters
8
Manistique Pioneer-Tribune, 10 February 1921.
10 February
Manistique Pioneer-Tribune
1921
9
Ibid., 18 May 1922 (advertisement)
18 May
Manistique Pioneer-Tribune
1922
"Formal Opening Saturday of 1st National," ibid., 25 May 1922.
25 May
Manistique Pioneer-Tribune
1922
10
Manistique Cen- tennial: Official Souvenir Book (Manistique, Mich., 1960)
Manistique Centennial: Official Souvenir Book
1960
11
Narciso G. Menocal, "The Bayard Building: French Paradox and the American Synthesis," Sites 13 (1985): 9
Menocal
9
13
Sites
1985
Sullivan's View" in Twombly and Menocal, Poetry of Architecture, 73-160
Twombly
Sullivan's View
73
Poetry of Architecture
12
Mercantile Club project (St. Louis, 1891)
15
n. 1
Manistique Centennial, n.p.
16
Ron Ford, North Country Chief Execu- tive Officer, 15 March 2000
Florence Alex Meron says she has interior photographs of First National for the years (c. 1922-1934)
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