A continuous tradition of Drāviḍa (south Indian) temple architecture flourished in Karnataka, southwest India, between the seventh and thirteenth centuries. This article focuses on the eleventh-century temples, arguing that the later forms can only be understood in relation to the constantly developing tradition, looked at as a whole. A formal analysis is put forward, based primarily on the evidence of the monuments themselves. From the monuments, an appropriate way of seeing can be deduced, allowing an understanding of both individual temple compositions and of the way in which the forms evolve. A clear evolutionary pattern emerges, tending toward dynamism and fusion. Seen retrospectively, there is a sense of inevitability, as if the inherent potential of the architectural language is unfolding. Yet there is great inventiveness. The article illustrates the nature of this inventiveness and discusses its relationship to the evolutionary pattern. It concludes that it was not fixed forms that were passed down, but a way of creating, and that the sense of evolutionary direction this produced can be understood in relation to the world view the temples embody.

Notes

Notes
1
"Measurement and Proportion in Hindu Temple Architecture," Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 10, no. 3 (1985): 248-257
3
248
10
Interdisciplinary Science Reviews
1985
2
The Architecture of Humanism [London, 1914]
Scott
The Architecture of Humanism
1914
Ernst Gombrich, for example, in The Sense of Order (Oxford, 1979)
Gombrich
The Sense of Order
1979
Popper's The Poverty of Historicism (London, 1961)
Popper
The Poverty of Historicism
1961
3
Adam Hardy, Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation, the Karnata Dravida tradition, 7th to 13th centuries (New Delhi, 1995)
Hardy
Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation, the Karnata Dravida tradition, 7th to 13th centuries
1995
Ph.D. dissertation, "The Karnata Drdvida Tradition: Devel- opment of Indian Temple Architecture in Karnataka, 7th to 131 Centuries, " Council for National Academic Awards (U.K., 1991)
M. A. Dhaky, Indian Temple Forms in Karndta Inscriptions and Architecture (New Delhi, 1977)
Dhaky
Indian Temple Forms in Karndta Inscriptions and Architecture
1977
M. A. Dhaky, ed., Encyclopedia of lndian Tem- ple Architecture, vol. 1, part 3 (New Delhi, 1996)
Dhaky
1
Encyclopedia of lndian Temple Architecture
1996
Ajay J. Sinha, based on his Ph.D. dissertation, "Originality and Origi- nation of Vesara Architecture" (University of Pennsylvania, 1993)
n. 6
4
Hardy, Indian Temple Architecture, 310-316
Hardy
310
Indian Temple Architecture
5
Hardy, Indian Temple Architecture, chap.10, 296-304
Hardy
chap.10
296
Indian Temple Architecture
idem, "Hybrid Temples in Karnataka," in First Under Heaven: The Art of Asia, Fourth Hali Annual (London, 1997), 26-43
Hardy
Hybrid Temples in Karnataka
26
First Under Heaven: The Art of Asia
1997
6
AjayJ. Sinha, "Architectural Invention in Sacred Structures, the Case of Vesara Temples of Southern India, "JSAH 55, no. 4 (1996): 382-399
Sinha
4
382
55
JSAH
1996
7
ibid., 382
382
Indian Art (London, 1997), 146 and fig. 100
Dehejia
146
Indian Art
1997
Hoysala Architecture, 2 vols. (New Delhi, 1994)
Foekema
Hoysala Architecture
1994
In her introduction to Concepts of Time, Ancient and Modern (New Delhi, 1996), xxix
Vatsyayan
xxix
Concepts of Time, Ancient and Modern
1996
"Time in Indian Temple Architecture" (354-372)
354
Time in Indian Temple Architecture
Ajay Sinha has recently reviewed my Indian Temple Architecture in Artibus Asiae 63, no. 3/4 (1999): 358-361.10.2307/3250027
358
op. cit., 359
359
9
Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civi- lization (New York, 1946), 130-136
Myths
130
Indian Art and Civilization
1946
10
The Hindu Temple (Calcutta, 1946), 165
Kramrisch
165
The Hindu Temple
1946
12
In his review of Indian Temple Architecture, Sinha calls my formal analy- sis a "structural-linguistic approach" (ArtibusAsiae 63, no. 3/4 [1999]: 358).10.2307/3250027
358
13
Hardy, Appendix (see n. 4).
14
Adam Hardy, "The Indian Subcontinent," chap. 26 in Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture, 20th ed. (London, 1996), 752, Fig. E
Hardy
20
chap. 26,The Indian Subcontinent
752
A History of Architecture
1996
Hardy, Indian Temple Architecture, 408, fig. 11d
Hardy
408
Indian Temple Architecture
16
Dravida, chooses to illustrate the "typical features of a Dravida temple," in contrast to "Vesara" ("Architectural Invention," 384, fig. 3)
Dravida
384
Architectural Invention
17
ibid., 384-385
384
19
Sinha (ibid., 391)
391
20
Lionel D. Barnett, "Inscriptions of Sudi," Epigraphia Indica 15 (1919-1920): 85-94
Barnett
85
15
Epigraphia Indica
1919
Sinha, ibid., 382, 393
393
n. 6
Hardy, Indian Temple Architecture, 60 and 209 n. 4
Hardy
60
Indian Temple Architecture
Dhaky in Indian Temple Forms (see n. 3)
Dhaky
Indian Temple Forms
21
Sinha ("Architectural Invention," 384)
Sinha
384
Architectural Invention
22
Sinha's term "bhadra cluster" (ibid., 390)
390
23
ibid., 394
394
24
Dhobini, illustrated by Sinha, ibid., 395, fig. 16
395
25
Hardy, Indian Temple Architecture, 176-178 and fig. 28.
Hardy
176
Indian Temple Architecture
26
The Dhobini temple (see n. 24) is again an example.
27
n. 5
28
Adam Hardy, "The Indian Subcontinent," chap. 26 in Fletcher, History of Architecture, 767 (see n. 14)
Hardy
chap. 26,The Indian Subcontinent
767
History of Architecture
29
Sinha, "Architectural Invention," 396.
Sinha
396
Architectural Invention
30
Meister, "Measurement and Pro- portion" (see n. 1)
Meister
Measurement and Proportion
31
Vatsyayan, Concepts of Time (see n. 8)
Vatsyayan
Concepts of Time
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