In attempting to create an appropriate architecture for an industrialized world, nineteenth-century architects argued the merits of particular materials and styles and debated principles of ornamentation and polychromatics. Although opposed in many aspects of theory and built form, their works share one aspect: a new interest in the use of inscriptions as emblematic ornamentation. The article proposes Owen Jones's publication of the Plans, Sections, Elevations and Details of the Alhambra (1836-1845) as one source for this attention to inscriptions and investigates the significance of the use of text within the decorative schemes produced by the British architects Owen Jones (1809-1874) and A. W. N. Pugin (1812-1852). The article advances the position that although Jones and Pugin had different motives for using inscriptions, both display a comprehension of Islamic ornamentation as understood and explained by Jones. New information on the relationship between Jones and Pugin is introduced and their mutual agreement and involvement in many concerns important to nineteenth-century architecture and the decorative arts are stressed. In addition, the essay explores the topic of architectural inscriptions theoretically and from a sociocultural perspective, emphasizing the importance of epigraphs within studies of the built environment, ornamentation, and visual culture, as a rich resource for understanding the mentality of a particular period and as a significant expression of the intentions informing aesthetic schemes developed by individual patrons and designers such as Jones and Pugin. Inscriptions are classified and defined in the article as informative, aesthetic, or emblematic, and the ideas and terms introduced in the essay are compared with the findings and theoretical concepts proposed in the work of the noted Islamicist Oleg Grabar.

Notes

Notes
2
Dedicatory and Votive Inscriptions (Tituli Sacri)
Sepulchral Inscriptions (Tituli Sepulchrales)
Honorary Inscriptions (Tituli Honorarii)
Inscriptions on Public Works (Tit- uli Operum Publicorum)
Inscriptions on Movable Objects (Instrumentum)
Wall Inscriptions (Inscriptiones Parietariae)
Edward Johnston, Writing & Illuminating & Lettering (New York, 1995), 305
Johnston
305
Writing & Illuminating & Lettering
1995
3
Frederich Friedl, Nicolaus Ott, and Bernard Stein, Typography-When Who How: An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques throughout History (New York, 1998), 8, 40-42, 48-49.
Friedl
40
8
Typography-When Who How: An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques throughout History
1998
4
The Bartholomew County Memorial for Veterans in Columbus, Indiana (Thompson and Rose Architects, 1997)
5
Oleg Grabar, The Alhambra (Cambridge, Mass., 1978)
Grabar
The Alhambra
1978
The Formation of Islamic Art (New Haven and London, 1973; reprint ed., 1987)
Grabar
The Formation of Islamic Art
1973
The Media- tion of Ornament (Princeton, 1992).
Grabar
The Mediation of Ornament
1992
6
Neil Levine, "The Book and the Building: Hugo's Theory of Achitecture and Labrouste's Bibliothèque Ste-Genevieve, "
Levine
The Book and the Building: Hugo's Theory of Achitecture and Labrouste's Bibliothèque Ste-Genevieve
David Van Zanten, "Architectural Polychromy: Life in Architecture," in Robin Middleton, ed., The Beaux-Arts and Nineteenth-Century French Architecture (Cambridge, Mass., 1982), 138-173, 198-200, 203, 205
Van Zanten
Architectural Polychromy: Life in Architecture
138
The Beaux-Arts and Nineteenth-Century French Architecture
1982
Armando Petrucci, Public Let- tering (Chicago, 1993).
Petrucci
Public Lettering
1993
7
Meyer Schapiro, Romanesque Art (New York, 1977; reprint ed., 1993)
Schapiro
Romanesque Art
1977
Jack Quinan, Frank Lloyd Wright's Larkin Building: Myth and Fact (New York, Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1987)
Quinan
Frank Lloyd Wright's Larkin Building: Myth and Fact
1987
Joseph M. Siry, Unity Temple: Frank Lloyd Wright and Architecture for Liberal Religion (Cambridge, 1996).
Siry
Unity Temple: Frank Lloyd Wright and Architecture for Liberal Religion
1996
8
John Y. Cole, On These Walls: Inscriptions and Quotations in the Buildings of the Library of Congress (Washington, D.C., 1995).
Cole
On These Walls: Inscriptions and Quotations in the Buildings of the Library of Congress
1995
9
John Sweetman, The Oriental Obsession: Islamic Inspiration in British and American Art and Architecture 1500-1920 (Cambridge, 1987), 4
Sweetman
4
The Oriental Obsession: Islamic Inspiration in British and American Art and Architecture 1500-1920
1987
Grabar, Alhambra, 18.
Grabar
18
Alhambra
10
Architectural Society on 1 December 1835, "American Society" (column), Gentleman's agazine, vol. 5, January 1836, p. 75
January
75
5
Gentleman's Magazine
1835
11
Michael Jacobs, Alhambra (New York, 2000), 192
Jacobs
192
Alhambra
2000
12
Grabar, Formation, 129.
Grabar
129
Formation
13
Michael Twyman, Printing 1770-1970: An Illustrated History of lts Devel- opment and Uses in England (London, 1998), 72.
Twyman
72
Printing 1770-1970: An Illustrated History of lts Development and Uses in England
1970
14
"Illustrated Publications," Chambers's Encyclopaedia, vol. 5 (London, 1877).
Illustrated Publications
5
Chambers's Encyclopædia
1877
15
Paul Goldman describes Victorian gift books as the precursor to the "now reviled genre-the 'coffee-table book"'; Paul Goldman, Victorian Illus- trated Books 1850-1870 (Boston, 1994), 71.
Goldman
71
Victorian Illustrated Books 1850-1870
1994
16
Asa Briggs, Victorian Things (Chicago, 1988), 47, 172.
Briggs
47
Victorian Things
1988
17
Bamber Gascoigne, Milestones in Colour Printing 1457-1859 (Cam- bridge, 1997), 38-39.
Gascoigne
38
Milestones in Colour Printing 1457-1859
1997
18
Larry J. Schaaf, W H. Fox Talbot authority, in telephone conversation with author, 18 May 1998
W H. Fox Talbot, The Pencil of Nature (Lon- don, 1844).
Talbot
The Pencil of Nature
1844
19
A Catalogue of an Exhibition of Recent Specimens of Photography Exhibited at the House of the Society of Arts, December 1852, Society for the Arts, London.
Society for the Arts
1852
20
Bauhaus and in The House Beautiful (c. 1895), with ornamentation by Frank Lloyd Wirght
Bauhaus
The House Beautiful
1895
William C. Gan- nett, The House Beautiful (Rohnert Park, Calif., 1996)
Gannett
The House Beautiful
1996
Mary Jane Hamilton, Frank Lloyd Wright & the Book Arts (Madison, Wisc., 1993).
Hamilton
Frank Lloyd Wright & the Book Arts
1993
21
Dominique-Vivant Denon, Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt, vols. 1-3 (1802; reprint ed., New York, 1973).
Denon
Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt
1973
22
"To insure perfect accuracy, an impression of every ornament through- out the palace was taken, either in plaster or with unsized paper"; adver- tisement for The Alhambra, London, 25 July 1842.
The Alhambra
1842
23
Antonio Fernaindez-Puertas, The Alhambra, vol. 1 (London, 1997), 106.
Fernaindez-Puertas
106
1
The Alhambra
1997
24
Grabar, Alhambra, 103.
Grabar
103
Alhambra
25
Jules Goury and Owen Jones, The Plans, Sections, Elevations and Details of the Alhambra, vol. 1 (London, 1842), P1. XXI.
Goury
1
The Plans, Sections, Elevations and Details of the Alhambra
1842
26
Gombrich, Sense of Order, 51, 54, 102.
Gombrich
51
Sense of Order
27
Grabar, Mediation, 59
Grabar
59
Mediation
Gombrich, Sense of Order, 237.
Gombrich
237
Sense of Order
28
Goury and Jones, Plans... of the Alhambra, vol. 1 (1842), P1. XXXVII
Goury
1
Plans... of the Alhambra
1842
Owen Jones, "Moresque Ornament," The Grammar of Ornament (1856; reprint ed., New York, 1986), 73.
Jones
Moresque Ornament
73
The Grammar of Ornament
1986
29
Goury and Jones, Plans... of the Alhambra, vol. 1 (1842), Pls. XL-XLII
Goury
1
Plans... of the Alhambra
1842
Jones, Grammar, 72-74.
Jones
72
Grammar
30
Goury and Jones, Plans... of the Alhambra, vol. 1 (1842), P1. XXXVIII
Goury
1
Plans... of the Alhambra
1842
Jones, Grammar, Proposition 22.
Jones
22
Grammar
31
Grabar, Mediation, 97.
Grabar
97
Mediation
32
Goury and Jones, Plans... of the Alhambra, vol. 1 (1842), P1. XXXVIII
Goury
1
Plans... of the Alhambra
1842
Owen Jones, "On the True and False Principles in the Decorative Arts, " lecture given at Marlborough House, June 1852, The National Art Library, Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Jones
On the True and False Principles in the Decorative Arts
1852
Jones, Grammar, Proposition 4.
Jones
4
Grammar
33
"The New Crystal Palace," Daily News (London), 23 July 1852.
23 July
Daily News
1852
Eric de Mard, London 1851: The Year of the Great Exhibition (London, 1973).
de Mard
London 1851: The Year of the Great Exhibition
1973
34
Philip H. Delamotte, Photographic Views of the Progress of the Crystal Palace Sydenham (London, 1855).
Delamotte
Photographic Views of the Progress of the Crystal Palace Sydenham
1855
35
The Civil Engineer andArchitect's Journal 17, no. 244 (July 1854): 32.
244
32
The Civil Engineer andArchitect's Journal 17
1854
36
Michael Darby, "Owen Jones and the Eastern Ideal" (Ph.D. diss., University of Reading, 1974), 345
37
Owen Jones, Description of the Egyptian Court; Erected in the Crystal Palace (London, 1854), 14-15.
Jones
14
Description of the Egyptian Court; Erected in the Crystal Palace
1854
38
Ibid., 13-15.
13
39
"A Tribute: by Le Corbusier," Architectural Review (London) 81 (1932): 72.
72
81
Architectural Review
1932
40
Messrs. Asher (Berlin)
W. Burn (Edin- burgh)
Messrs. Cary
Hart (Philadelphia)
British Museum, the London Institution, the Royal Dublin Society, and the Gar- rison Library, Gibraltar
Goury and Jones, Plans... of the Alhambra, vol. 1 (1842), "List of Subscribers."
Goury
1
Plans... of the Alhambra
1842
41
Grabar, Alhambra, 19
Grabar
19
Alhambra
42
Charlotte Gere and Michael Whiteway, Nineteenth-Century Design from Pugin to Mackintosh (New York, 1994), 67
Gere
67
Nineteenth-Century Design from Pugin to Mackintosh
1994
Sweetman, Oriental Obsession, 128 (see n. 9).
Sweetman
128
Oriental Obsession
43
Washington Irving, The Alhambra: A Series of Tales and Sketches of the Moors and Spaniards (Philadelphia, 1832)
Irving
The Alhambra: A Series of Tales and Sketches of the Moors and Spaniards
1832
Irving, The Alhambra (New York, 1865).
Irving
The Alhambra
1865
44
Jones, "The Influence of Religion Upon Art" (see n. 10)
Jones
The Influence of Religion Upon Art
Michael Hall, "What Do Victorian Churches Mean?" JSAH 59, no. 1 (2000): 80.
Hall
1
80
59
JSAH
2000
45
Irving, Alhambra (1865), 60.
Irving
60
Alhambra
1865
46
The Dictionary of the Architectural Society, vol. 1 (London, 1848), 41.
41
1
The Dictionary of the Architectural Society
1848
47
A.WN. Pugin, Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament & Costume (London, 1844, 1846, 1868)
Pugin
Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament & Costume
1844
Phoebe Stanton, Pugin, (New York, 1972), 142, 211.
Stanton
142
Pugin
1972
48
Alexandra Wedgwood, A.W.N. Pugin and the Pugin Family (London, 1985), 54.
Wedgwood
54
A.W.N. Pugin and the Pugin Family
1985
49
A. C. Pugin, Specimens of Gothic Architecture, 2 vols. (London, 1821-1823)
Pugin
Specimens of Gothic Architecture
1821
A. C. Pugin, Pugin's Gothic Furniture [c. 1827]
Pugin
Pugin's Gothic Furniture
1827
Alexandra Wedgwood, "The Early Years," in Paul Atterbury and Clive Wainwright, eds., Pugin: A Gothic Passion (New Haven and London, 1994), 23-25.
Wedgwood
The Early Years
23
Pugin: A Gothic Passion
1994
50
Jonathan Glancey, "The Great Goth," Perspectives on Architecture, June 1994, p. 26.
Glancey
June
26
Perspectives on Architecture
1994
51
Clive Wainwright, " 'Not a Style but a Principle': Pugin and His Influ- ence," in Atterbury and Wainwright, eds., Pugin: A Gothic Passion, 1
Wainwright
Not a Style but a Principle': Pugin and His Influence
1
Pugin: A Gothic Passion
A.W.N. Pugin, Contrasts; or, a Parallel between the Noble Edifices of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, and Similar Buildings of the Present Day; showing the Pres- ent Decay of Taste (Salisbury, 1836; reprint ed., New York, 1969)
Pugin
Contrasts; or, a Parallel between the Noble Edifices of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, and Similar Buildings of the Present Day; showing the Present Decay of Taste
1969
Phoebe Stanton, "The Sources of Pugin's Contrasts," in John Summerson, ed., Con- cerning Architecture: Essays on Architectural Writers and Writing Presented to Nikolaus Pevsner (London, 1968)
Stanton
The Sources of Pugin's Contrasts
Concerning Architecture: Essays on Architectural Writers and Writing Presented to Nikolaus Pevsner
1968
Carol Flores, "Owen Jones, Architect" (Ph.D. diss., Georgia Institute of Technology, 1996), 28-36
Rosemary Hill, "Reformation to Millennium: Pugin's Contrasts in the History of English Thought," JSAH 58, no. 1 (1999): 26-41.
Hill
1
26
58
JSAH
1999
52
Wainwright, " 'Not a Style, "' 6, 7
Wainwright
6
'Not a Style
John Kresten Jespersen, "From Sym- bolic to Aesthetic Ornament: Studies in the Theories and Designs of A.W.N. Pugin and Owen Jones" (master's thesis, Brown University, 1977), 2.
53
Joseph Gwilt, The Encyclopedia of Architecture (1867; reprint ed., New York, 1982), 53
Gwilt
53
The Encyclopedia of Architecture
1982
54
Stanton, Pugin, 104.
Stanton
104
Pugin
55
Mark Girouard, The Victorian Country House (New Haven, 1985), note p. 112.
Girouard
112
The Victorian Country House
1985
The Latin translation of "Except the Lord.. ." is Nisi Dominus aed- ificaverit domum in vanum laborant qui aedificant eam.
56
Nicola Coldstream, The Decorated Style (Toronto, 1994).
Coldstream
The Decorated Style
1994
57
Shapiro, Romanesque Art, 16-17 (see n. 7)
Shapiro
16
Romanesque Art
Petrucci, Public Lettering, 12-13 (see n. 6).
Petrucci
12
Public Lettering
58
Petrucci, Public Lettering, 2.
Petrucci
2
Public Lettering
59
Stanton, Pugin, 104.
Stanton
104
Pugin
60
Ibid., 106-107, 109-110.
106
61
Ibid., 107.
107
62
W. G. Short, Pugin's Gem: A BriefHistory of the Roman Catholic Church of Saint Giles, Cheadle (Stoke-on-Trent, 1981), 11.
Short
11
Pugin's Gem: A BriefHistory of the Roman Catholic Church of Saint Giles, Cheadle
1981
63
Short, Pugin's Gem, 12, 15.
Short
12
Pugin's Gem
64
Roderick O'Donnell, "Pugin as Church Architect," in Atterbury and Wainwright, eds., Pugin: A Gothic Passion, 73
O'Donnell
Pugin as Church Architect
73
Pugin: A Gothic Passion
Stanton, Pugin, 108.
Stanton
108
Pugin
65
Short, Pugin's Gem, 15.
Short
15
Pugin's Gem
66
Goury and Jones, Plans ... of the Alhambra, vol. 1 (1842), P1. II.
Goury
1
Plans ... of the Alhambra
1842
67
Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman, Architecture, from Prehistory to Post-modernism (New York, 1986), 247-248.
Trachtenberg
247
Architecture, from Prehistory to Post-modernism
1986
68
Robert Cooke, The Palace of Westminster (New York, 1987), 87-88.
Cooke
87
The Palace of Westminster
1987
70
Megan Aldrich, ed., The Craces: Royal Decorators 1768-1899 (Brighton and London, 1990), 74.
Aldrich
74
The Craces: Royal Decorators 1768-1899
1990
71
Rosemary Hill, "The Microcosm of London: Pugin's Parents and His Early Life," paper read at the conference on Pugin and the Gothic Revival, Victoria and Albert Museum, July 1994.
Hill
The Microcosm of London: Pugin's Parents and His Early Life
Conference on Pugin and the Gothic Revival, Victoria and Albert Museum, July 1994
1994
72
Wainwright, " 'Not a Style, "' 1 (see n. 51).
Wainwright
1
'Not a Style
73
Alexandra Wedgwood, Pugin and His Family (London, 1985), 232.
Wedgwood
232
Pugin and His Family
1985
74
Jones, Grammar, Principle 4.
Jones
4
Grammar
75
Stanton, "Pugin's Contrasts," 120 (see n. 51).
Stanton
120
Pugin's Contrasts
76
A.WN. Pugin, Contrasts; ibid.
Pugin
Contrasts
77
Pugin, Contrasts, 1-2
Pugin
1
Contrasts
Jones, "Influence of Religion," 15 (see n. 44).
Jones
15
Influence of Religion
78
Jones, "Influence of Religion," 16
Jones
16
Influence of Religion
Pugin, Contrasts (1969), 5-6.
Pugin
5
Contrasts
1969
79
Jones, "Influence of Religion," 19-20
Jones
19
Influence of Religion
Pugin, Contrasts (1969), 6.
Pugin
6
Contrasts
1969
80
Stanton, Pugin, 25-26 (see n. 45).
Stanton
25
Pugin
81
Jones, "Influence of Religion," 21.
Jones
21
Influence of Religion
82
Margaret Belcher, "Pugin Writing," in Atterbury and Wainwright, eds., Pugin: A Gothic Passion, 105 (see n. 49).
Belcher
Pugin Writing
105
Pugin: A Gothic Passion
83
A.WN. Pugin, An Apology for a work entitled "Contrasts" (Birmingham, 1837).
Pugin
An Apology for a work entitled "Contrasts"
1837
84
Ibid., 4, 7.
4
85
Grabar, Alhambra, 100 (see n. 5).
Grabar
100
Alhambra
86
Ibid., 135.
135
87
Grabar, Mediation, 110 (see n. 5).
Grabar
110
Mediation
88
Ibid., 98, 117-118.
98
89
Jones's work include Michael Darby, "Owen Jones and the Eastern Ideal" (see n. 36)
Jones
Owen Jones and the Eastern Ideal
Michael Darby, The Islamic Perspective (London, 1983)
Darby
The Islamic Perspective
1983
Sweetman, Oriental Obsession (see n. 9).
Sweetman
Oriental Obsession
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