In a challenging but little-studied article published in Architectura in 1985, David B. Brownlee argued that the religious concept of the development of doctrine influenced the belief of architects in the Anglican Church in the 1840s that they should attempt to "develop" architecture in a radical new direction. The result was the style we now call "High Victorian." This article takes up Professor Brownlee's argument in two ways. First, it looks at how architects in the 1850s sought to create a progressive style by drawing on ideas and images from contemporary science, specifically geology, for which development was also a key word. Second, it addresses the question of why the idea of development fell so suddenly from favor in avant-garde architectural circles in the 1860s. It argues that as science and religion withdrew into their separate spheres, architects turned instead to an ideal based not on historical development but on the imitation of a stylistic paradigm. This approach was influenced by High Church belief that the sacraments, most importantly the Eucharist, were the material realization of a timeless supernatural reality. Changing attitudes to time and precedent had important consequences for the way architects viewed restoration, archaeology, and the use of historical models.

Notes

Notes
1
Michael Hall, "The Rise of Refinement: G. E Bodley's All Saints, Cambridge, and the Return to English Models in Gothic Architecture of the 1860s," Architec- tural History 36 (1993): 103-12610.2307/1568586
103
2
David B. Brownlee, "The First High Victorians: British Architectural Theory in the 1840s," Architectura 15 (1985): 33-46.
Brownlee
33
15
Architectura
1985
3
Owen Chadwick, From Bossuet to Newman: the Idea of Doctrinal Develop- ment (Cambridge, 1957)
Chadwick
From Bossuet to Newman: the Idea of Doctrinal Development
1957
4
William George Ward, in his Ideal of a Christian Church (1844)
Ward
Ideal of a Christian Church
1844
5
John Henry Newman to Ambrose Lisle Phillips, 15 June 1848, in C. S. Dessain, ed., The Letters and Diaries offJohn Henry Newman, vol. 12 (London, 1962), 221.
Newman
221
12
The Letters and Diaries offJohn Henry Newman
1962
6
Anon. [Alexander James Beresford Hope], "Past and Future Develope- ments [sic] of Architecture," Ecclesiologist 7 (1846): 48-55.
48
7
Ecclesiologist
1846
7
Peter J. Bowler, The Invention ofProgress: the Victorians and the Past (London, 1989), 445
Bowler
445
The Invention ofProgress: the Victorians and the Past
1989
8
Brent Elliott, Victorian Gardens (London, 1986), 102-106
Elliott
102
Victorian Gardens
1986
Sam McKinstry, "Thomson's Archi- tectural Theory," in Gavin Stamp and Sam McKinstry, eds., Greek Thom- son (Edinburgh, 1994), 62-71
McKinstry
Thomson's Architectural Theory
62
Greek Thomson
1994
9
Ecclesiologist 13 (1852): 247-262.
247
13
Ecclesiologist
1852
10
Published in Orby Shipley, ed., The Church and the World: Essays on Ques- tions of the Day (London, 1866), 397-411.
Shipley
397
The Church and the World: Essays on Questions of the Day
1866
11
Ibid., 398.
398
12
Robert Hewison, John Ruskin: the Argument of the Eye (London, 1976), 62-63
Hewison
62
John Ruskin: the Argument of the Eye
1976
13
Frederick O'Dwyer in The Architecture ofDeane & Woodward (Cork, 1997)
O'Dwyer
The Architecture ofDeane & Woodward
1997
14
John Ruskin, in Henry Acland and John Ruskin, The Oxford Museum (London, 1859), 48-53.
Ruskin
48
The Oxford Museum
1859
15
Eve Blau, Ruskinian Gothic: the Architecture of Deane & Woodward, 1845-1861 (Princeton, N.J.,1982), 74.
Blau
74
Ruskinian Gothic: the Architecture of Deane & Woodward, 1845-1861
1982
16
Ibid., 49.
49
17
Gottfried Semper, The Elements of Architecture and Other Writings (Cambridge, 1989)
Semper
The Elements of Architecture and Other Writings
1989
18
Charles C. Gillispie, Genesis and Geology (Cambridge, Mass., 1951)
Gillispie
Genesis and Geology
1951
Nicolaas A. Rupke to the latest edi- tion (Cambridge, Mass., 1996)
19
Nicolaas A. Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology (1814-1 848) (Oxford, 1983)
Rupke
The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology (1814-1 848)
1983
20
Edinburgh Review 65 (1837): 39
39
65
Edinburgh Review
1837
Rupke, Great Chain of History, 247
Rupke
247
Great Chain of History
21
Robert Chambers, Vestiges of Creation, 2nd ed. (London, 1844), 362.
Chambers
2
362
Vestiges of Creation
1844
22
Builder, 26 November 1859, 781.
26 November
781
Builder
1859
23
John Ruskin, "The Wall Veil and Shaft," The Stones of Venice, Everyman edition, vol. 1 (London, 1907), 262.
Ruskin
The Wall Veil and Shaft
262
1
The Stones of Venice
1907
25
Ecclesiologist 19 (1861), 67-69.
67
19
Ecclesiologist
1861
26
Jill Allibone, Guide to St Michael and All Angels, Garton-on-the-Wolds, Yorkshire (London, 1991).
Allibone
Guide to St Michael and All Angels, Garton-on-the-Wolds, Yorkshire
1991
27
Huxley at the Geological Museum in 1858, and were printed as an article, "Science and Religion," in Builder, 15 January 1859, 35-36
Huxley
15 January
35
Builder
1859
28
Marcia Pointon, "The Representation of Time in Painting: A Study of William Dyce's Pegwell Bay: A Recollection of October 5th, 1858," Art His- tory 1 (1978): 99-103
Pointon
99
1
Art History
1978
29
John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb, The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments... (London, 1843), xxvi.
Neale
xxvi
The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments...
1843
30
A. P. Forbes, D.C.L., Bishop of Brechin, A Primary Charge delivered to the Clergy of his Diocese at the Annual Synod (London, 1857).
Forbes
A Primary Charge delivered to the Clergy of his Diocese at the Annual Synod
1857
31
Rowan Strong, Alexander Forbes ofBrechin: The First Tractarian Bishop (Oxford, 1995)
Strong
Alexander Forbes ofBrechin: The First Tractarian Bishop
1995
32
Forbes, Primary Charge, 11.
Forbes
11
Primary Charge
33
Ibid., 22.
22
34
Ibid.
35
George Gilbert Scott, Jr., unpublished notebook [No. 13], fol. 70
36
Ecclesiologist 19 (1861): 70-78.
70
19
Ecclesiologist
1861
37
Martin Harrison, "Church Decoration and Stained Glass," in William Morris, exhibition catalogue, Victoria and Albert Museum (Lon- don, 1996), 107
Harrison
Church Decoration and Stained Glass
107
exhibition catalogue, Victoria and Albert Museum
1996
38
Canon Knox-Little, Hoar Cross Magazine, October 1890.
Knox-Little
October
Hoar Cross Magazine
1890
40
Bodley's domestic architecture of the 1860s
Mark Girouard, Sweetness and Light: The Queen Anne Movement 1860-1900, 2nd ed. (Lon- don and New Haven, 1984), 33-35
Girouard
2
33
Sweetness and Light: The Queen Anne Movement 1860-1900
1984
Michael Hall, "Simple People and Homely Minds," Country Life, 1 September 1994, 58-61
Hall
1 September
58
Country Life
1994
42
John T. Emmett, Six Essays (London, 1891), x
Emmett
x
Six Essays
1891
43
W. R. Lethaby, Philip Webb and his Work (Oxford, 1935), 223.
Lethaby
223
Philip Webb and his Work
1935
44
Alexandrina Buchanan, "Robert Willis and the Rise of Architectural History" (Ph.D. diss., University of London, 1994)
"The Science of Rubbish: Robert Willis and the Contribution of Archi- tectural History," in Frank Salmon, ed., Gothic and the Gothic Revival: Papers from the 26th Annual Symposium of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain, 1997 (Manchester, 1998)
Buchanan
The Science of Rubbish: Robert Willis and the Contribution of Architectural History
Gothic and the Gothic Revival: Papers from the 26th Annual Symposium of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain
1998
45
Chris Miele, " 'Their interest and habit': professionalism and the restoration of medieval churches, 1837-77," in Chris Brooks and Andrew Saint, eds., The Victorian Church: Architecture and Society (Manchester, 1995), 151-172, at 170.
Miele
'Their interest and habit': professionalism and the restoration of medieval churches, 1837-77
151
The Victorian Church: Architecture and Society
1995
46
Ecclesiologist 22 (1861): 70.
70
22
Ecclesiologist
1861
47
George Frederick Bodley to George Corrie, 1 July 1864 (Jesus College Archives).
48
Ecclesiologist 22 (1861): 70.
70
22
Ecclesiologist
1861
49
Richard Norman Shaw to John Dando Sedding, 5 November 1882
Andrew Saint, Richard Norman Shaw (London, 1976), 218
Saint
218
Richard Norman Shaw
1976
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