This is a contextual investigation of the theory and design of Rudolph M. Schindler (1887-1953), one of the most outstanding and interesting architects of the Modern Movement in the United States. Born in 1887 in Vienna, he was trained under Otto Wagner at the Academy of Fine Arts, under Adolf Loos in the Bauschule, and under Frank Lloyd Wright working in his studio in Oak Park and Taliesin. The architectural design of Schindler not only reflects the influence of his teachers but it also has had a lasting influence on modern architecture in the United States. Although Schindler did not teach extensively at architectural schools, his articles and buildings were published throughout the United States and Europe. Schindler's personal background is unusual since, although trained in Austria, he spent the rest of his life in the United States without ever returning to visit Europe. He left Europe before World War I and maintained no direct relationship with architects and artists of the Russian Constructivism, Dutch Cubism, German Bauhaus, or Italian Futurism, and, living in the United States, he also was never confronted with the cultural policy of the German Third Reich and the notion of Entartete Kunst. Most modern architects from Austria and Germany left their countries during the time of the fascists. Schindler was in a unique position. Since he remained in the United States after World War I, he was spared the fate of his contemporaries. Throughout his life, Schindler was very much isolated from the so-called International Style, and as a result he gave his body of work a very personal interpretation.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
R. M. Schindler, "Shelter or Playground" (in "Care of the Body" column), Los Angeles Times, 2 May 1926.
Schindler
2 May
Los Angeles Times
1926
2
University of California, Santa Barbara, Architectural Drawing Collection, hereafter UCSB-ADC.
3
16 January 1982
Esther McCoy, Vienna to Los Angeles: Two Journeys, Santa Monica, 1979, 68-69
McCoy
68
Vienna to Los Angeles: Two Journeys
1979
4
McCoy, Vienna to Los Angeles, 66
66
Esther Mc- Coy in a conversation with Mrs. Lovell
5
Oppositions, 18 (Fall 1979), 74-85
Fall
74
18
Oppositions
1979
6
Esther McCoy, Five California Archi- tects, New York, 1960
McCoy
Five California Architects
1960
David Gebhard, Schindler, Santa Bar- bara and Salt Lake City, 1980
Gebhard
Schindler
1980
7
UCSB-ADC, photograph collection of R. M. Schindler
8
"Unusual Home is Built of Concrete and Glass," Popular Mechanics Magazine, June 1927, 969
June
969
Popular Mechanics Magazine
1927
9
"A Beach House for Dr. P. Lovell at Newport Beach, Califor- nia," Architectural Review, 66 (September 1928), 257-261
September
257
66
Architectural Review
1928
10
Sheldon Cheney, The New World Architecture, London, New York, Toronto, 1930
Cheney
The New World Architecture
1930
Illustrations of Schindler's Lovell beach house are on p. 235
Gropius's house in Dessau (1926)
p. 286
12
library in Bergen, New Jersey (1920; Figs. 21, 22)
Mr. and Mrs. Rodakiewicz, Los Angeles (1937; Fig. 23)
Rodakiewicz
Los Angeles
1937
Otto A. Graf, Die Kunst des Quadrats, Vienna, 1983
Graf
Die Kunst des Quadrats
1983
13
12Janu- ary 1982
14
1924: Vacation house for Dr. Lovell, Wrightwood, destroyed
1925: Bedroom for Dr. Lovell, Los Angeles, destroyed
1926: Beach house for Dr. Lovell, 1242 Ocean Ave., Newport Beach
15
UCSB-Shindler Archives.
16
McCoy, Vienna to Los Angeles, 66, 67.
66
17
McCoy, Vienna to Los Angeles, 68, 69
68
18
Georg Simmel, Die Grossstadt und das Geistesleben, Dres- den, 1903
Simmel
Die Grossstadt und das Geistesleben
1903
English translation, "The Metropolis and Mental Life," in The Sociology of Georg Simmel, New York, 1950
The Metropolis and Mental Life
The Sociology of Georg Simmel
1950
Robert Musil, The Man without Qualities, London, 1961
Musil
The Man without Qualities
1961
20
Schindler, "Shelter or Playground."
21
UCSB-ADC, Schindler drawing collection, no inventory numbers.
22
UCSB-ADC, Schindler drawing collection, no inventory numbers.
23
Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Modern Architecture, New York, 1929.
Hitchcock
Modern Architecture
1929
24
Gebhard, Schindler, 77.
77
25
Reyner Banham, Los Angeles-The Architecture of Four Ecol- ogies, London, 1971.
Banham
Los Angeles-The Architecture of Four Ecologies
1971
26
H. L. Jaffe's book, De Stijl 1917-1931, Amsterdam, 1956
Jaffe
De Stijl 1917-1931
1917
27
Letter of Philip Johnson to Schindler dated 17 March 1932
UCSB-ADC
28
Letter of Lewis Mumford to Shindler dated 22 July 1929 (UCSB-ADC).
29
McCoy, Vienna to Los Angeles, 68, conversation with Mrs. Lovell.
McCoy
68
Vienna to Los Angeles
30
UCSB-ADC
Richard Neutra and the Search for Modern Architecture, New York, 1982, 303- 308
303
Richard Neutra and the Search for Modern Architecture
1982
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