There is, perhaps, no better 18th-century literary source for understanding the intention behind the design and construction of early-18th-century English landscape garden buildings than the theory of Robert Morris. In this article Morris's writings on "situation" are examined as they relate to and clarify the design and siting of buildings in country settings and landscape gardens. Although writers such as Wittkower and Lovejoy found neoclassical buildings and informal gardens to be formal opposites, Morris conceived them to be interrelated and reciprocal manifestations of what writers before and after him called the "genius of the place." The buildings in Lord Burlington's garden at Chiswick and Alexander Pope's garden at Twickenham predate Morris's writings, but they can be seen to exemplify the principles he elaborated. Although Morris's interpretation of "situation" differed greatly from earlier theories of the "site" of the building, it is an indication of his desire to preserve the substance-if not the form-of the classical tradition.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
E. Kaufmann, Architecture in the Age of Reason, New York, 1955, 28
Kaufmann
28
Architecture in the Age of Reason
1955
J. Summerson, Architecture in Britain 1530-x830, Harmondsworth, 1963, 214
Summerson
214
Architecture in Britain 1530-x830
1963
W. Gibson, "Literary Influences on Robert Morris' First Excursion into Architectural Theory," Rendezvous, Idaho State University Journal of Arts and Letters, 6 (1971), 11-4
Gibson
11
6
Idaho State University Journal of Arts and Letters
1971
J. Rykwert, The First Moderns, Cambridge, Mass., 1980, 185
Rykwert
185
The First Moderns
1980
D. Cruickshank, "An English Reason," Architect's Journal, 4 (1983), 49-58
Cruickshank
49
4
Architect's Journal
1983
2
R. Morris, Lectures on Architecture, London, 1734, part I
Morris
Lectures on Architecture
1734
1736, part 2, 86
3
R. Morris, An Essay in Defense ofAncient Architecture, London, 1728.
Morris
An Essay in Defense ofAncient Architecture
1728
4
Rykwert, First Moderns, 900.
Rykwert
900
First Moderns
5
H. Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary ofBritish Architects, 1600-M840, London, 1978, 559.
Colvin
559
A Biographical Dictionary ofBritish Architects, 1600-M840
1978
6
Colvin, ibid.
7
W. Gibson, Introduction to The Art of Architecture A Poem, anon- ymous, 1742, The Augustan Reprint Society, 144
Gibson
144
Introduction to The Art of Architecture A Poem
1742
Colvin, op. cit., 558
558
8
Morris, Lectures, part 2, 220.
Morris
220
Lectures
9
Morris, An Essay Upon Harmony, London, 1739, 35-
Morris
35
An Essay Upon Harmony
1739
10
Morris, The Art of Architecture, London, 1742, 13, 16.
Morris
13
The Art of Architecture
1742
11
Morris, Lectures, part i, 86.
Morris
86
Lectures
12
Ibid.
I. Ware's translation of the Quattro Libri, or The Four Books on Architecture, London, 1738, 46
Ware
46
The Four Books on Architecture
1738
H. Wotton, see The Elements of Architecture, London, 1624, 2-5
Wotton
2
The Elements of Architecture
1624
13
R. de Piles, Cours de Peinture, trans. 1743
de Piles
Cours de Peinture
1743
J. D. Hunt and P. Willis, The Genius of the Place, London, 1975, 113
Hunt
113
The Genius of the Place
1975
14
Hunt and Willis, Genius of the Place, 113.
Hunt
113
Genius of the Place
15
Ibid.
16
Morris, Lectures, part i, 79.
Morris
79
Lectures
17
Ibid., 82.
82
18
Morris, Essay Upon Harmony, 15.
Morris
15
Essay Upon Harmony
19
Ibid., 16ff.
16
20
Ibid., 31.
31
21
Essay Upon Harmony, 35
Morris
35
Essay Upon Harmony
Mor- ris, Art of Architecture, 21
Morris
21
Art of Architecture
Morris, Lectures, part I, 72
Morris
72
Lectures
22
Morris, Lectures, part 2, vi.
Morris
vi
Lectures
23
Ibid., 187.
187
24
Ibid.
25
H. Wotton, Elements of Architecture, London, 1624, 109.
Wotton
109
Elements of Architecture
1624
26
Morris, Lectures, part 2, 2xo.
Morris
2xo
Lectures
27
R. Morris, Rural Architecture, London, 1750, P1. xv.
Morris
Rural Architecture
1750
28
Ibid., P1. viii.
29
Ibid., 2.
2
30
Morris, Lectures, part 2, 196.
Morris
196
Lectures
31
J. Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Book II, chap. I, parts 2 and 3, London, 1690.
Locke
chap. I
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
1690
32
Morris, Lectures, part 2, 196.
Morris
196
Lectures
33
Ibid., 87.
87
34
Morris, Essay Upon Harmony, title page.
Morris
Essay Upon Harmony
35
Ibid., iii.
iii
36
Ibid., 32-
32
37
M. Brownell, Alexander Pope and the Arts of Georgian England, Oxford, 1978, 253-254
Brownell
253
Alexander Pope and the Arts of Georgian England
1978
38
Ibid., 253-254.
253
39
A. Pope, The Works, ed. B. Warburton, 21 vols., London, 1760, vol. 3, 268
Pope
268
3
The Works
1760
J. Rykwert, On Adam's House in Paradise, New York, 1972, 94-101
Rykwert
94
On Adam's House in Paradise
1972
40
Pope, Works, 268.
Pope
268
Works
41
Ibid., "An Epistle to Lord Burlington," lines 57-70.
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