This article analyzes and interprets an unpublished Spanish architectural treatise that was written for Philip II while he was Prince Regent (c. 1550). The manuscript did not previously attract attention because it was mistakenly described as written for the king's son Philip (later Philip III) in the 1590s. The treatise, which is by no means a masterpiece of architectural literature, derives mainly from L. B. Alberti's De re aedificatoria, but the anonymous Spanish author used his sources selectively to make an explicit connection between morality and a restrained and orderly classical style. He was not concerned so much with buildings as such but rather with their moral dimension and their relevance to the contemporary Spanish state. His concern to articulate the principles of a Catholic, as opposed to pagan, classical style is matched by his eagerness to reform Spanish architectural practice along the lines suggested by Alberti. Simply as an expression of Counter-Reformation aesthetics the treatise is precocious and exceptionally explicit. The treatise was prepared for Philip who, the author states, requested it, which makes it the only known piece of architectural writing prepared especially for him. It brings crucial evidence about Philip's concerns with architecture in the 1550s, before the beginning of the Escorial in 1563, a subject for which historians were reduced to conjecture. The treatise adumbrates a program for reform that is virtually identical to the one Philip actually adopted in 1559. The evidence of the treatise suggests that the strong ideological implications of the style of the Escorial are not simply a post facto gloss but were a deliberate factor in the inception of the design.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
G. A. Kubler, Building the Escorial, Princeton, 1982
Kubler
Building the Escorial
1982
2
J. de Sigiienza, Historia de la orden de San Jerénimo, Madrid, 1605, Nueva Biblioteca de autores espafioles, 12, 2 vols., Madrid, 1907-1909.
de Sigiienza
Historia de la orden de San Jerénimo
1907
Books III and Iv, 401-682
401
Books III and Iv
3
J. Prado and J. B. Villalpando, In Ezechielem explanationes ..., 2 vols., Rome, 1596-1604.
Prado
In Ezechielem explanationes
1604
R. Taylor, "El Padre Villalpando y sus ideas esteticas," Academia: Anales y Boletin de la Real Academia de San Fernando, 1-2 (1952), 410-473
Taylor
410
1-2
Academia: Anales y Boletin de la Real Academia de San Fernando
1952
4
Kubler, Escorial, 126-134.
Kubler
126
Escorial
5
R. Gutierrez, Notaspara una bibliografia Hispano- Americana de arquitectura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Argentina, 1972(?), 7, n. 14
Gutierrez
7
Notaspara una bibliografia HispanoAmericana de arquitectura
1972
F. Marias and A. Busta- mante, "Un Tratado inedito de arquitectura de hacia 1550," Boletin del Museo y Instituto Camén Aznar, 13 (1983), 41-57
Marias
41
13
Boletin del Museo y Instituto Camén Aznar
1983
F. Marias, "Teatro antiguo y corral de comedias en Toledo: teoria y prictica arquitectonica en el renacimiento espafiol," Congresso Internacional: Calderén y el teatro espafiol del siglo de oro, Madrid, 1981 (in press)
Marias
Teatro antiguo y corral de comedias en Toledo: teoria y prictica arquitectonica en el renacimiento espafiol
Congresso Internacional: Calderén y el teatro espafiol del siglo de oro
1981
"Orden y modo en la arquitectura espaiiola," in E. Forssmann, Dérico, idnico y corintio en la arquitectura del renacimiento, Madrid, 1983
Forssmann
Orden y modo en la arquitectura espaiiola
idnico y corintio en la arquitectura del renacimiento
1983
n. 31
6
"The Escorial and the Invention of the Imperial Stair- case," Art Bulletin, 57 (1975), 69-90
Wilkinson
69
57
Art Bulletin
1975
7
fol. 3
8
n. 39
9
F. Iiiguez Almech, Casas reales y jardines de Felipe II, Madrid, 1952
Almech
Casas reales y jardines de Felipe II
1952
Kubler, Escorial, 15-17
Kubler
15
Escorial
10
Fol. 6
11
Kubler, Escorial, 15-17.
Kubler
15
Escorial
13
R. Gutierrez, Notas para una bibliograffa, and Bibliografia de arquitectura, ingenierta y urbanismo en Espaiia (1498-1880), ed. A. Bonet Correa, 2 vols., Madrid/Vaduz, 1980
Gutierrez
Notas para una bibliograffa, and Bibliografia de arquitectura, ingenierta y urbanismo en Espaiia (1498-1880)
1980
14
Marias and Bustamante, "Tratado inedito,"
Marias
Tratado inedito
15
P. Lauro, Venice, 1546
Lauro
Venice
1546
C. Bartoli's L'Architettura di Leon Battista Alberti, Florence, 1550
Bartoli
L'Architettura di Leon Battista Alberti
1550
16
n. 7
17
fols. 900v-92v, Cap. 99
18
Fols. 56-59, Cap. 66
fol. 56v
19
Fols. 57-57v
20
Fol. 57v
fol. 58
21
Fol. 58
22
Fols. 58-58v
23
fol. 2v
fol. 3
Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, trans. M. H. Morgan, New York, 1960, 109
Vitruvius
109
The Ten Books on Architecture
1960
24
Cap. 37, fols. 31-31v
Cap. 50, fols. 40ff.
25
fols. 71v-72v
26
Ibid.
27
Fols. 74-74v, Cap. 83
Alberti, Re re aedificatoria, vii, xiv
Alberti
xiv
vii
Re re aedificatoria
28
R. Wittkower, Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism, New York, 1971, Parts I, 11, IV, 3-55 and 101-125
Wittkower
3
IV
Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism
1971
F. Choay, La Rigle et le modile, Paris, 1981
Choay
La Rigle et le modile
1981
29
Fol. 37v
fol. 22v
30
Fol. 33v, Cap. 42
31
fol. I
fols. x-2
32
n. 7
33
Fol. 3v-4
34
Fol. 3v.
35
Fol. 4
36
fol. 4-4v
37
Fol. 4v
38
Fol. 3v
39
Fol. 5
40
F. Chueca Goitia, Arquitectura del siglo XVI, Ars Hispaniae xI, Madrid, 1953-
Goitia
Arquitectura del siglo XVI
1953
41
A. R. Gutierrez de Ceballos, Bartolomi de Bustamante y los ortgenes de la arquitectura jesuitica en Espaia, Biblioteca Instituti Historici Societatis Iesu, 27, Rome, 1967
de Ceballos
27
Bartolomi de Bustamante y los ortgenes de la arquitectura jesuitica en Espaia
1967
F. Marias, La Arquitectura del Renacimiento en Toledo (1541-1631), I, Toledo, 1983
Marias
I
La Arquitectura del Renacimiento en Toledo
1983
Ifüguez Almech, Casas reales
Almech
Casas reales
42
Ifüguez, Casas reales
Ifüguez
Casas reales
Kubler, Escorial, 15-17
Kubler
15
Escorial
43
Alberti, De re aedificatoria, Bk. ix, ix
Alberti
ix
ix
De re aedificatoria
R. Krautheimer, "Alberti and Vitruvius," Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art, New York and London, 1969, 323-332
Krautheimer
Alberti and Vitruvius
323
Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art
1969
44
Tercero y Qvarto libro de Architectura de Sebastia Serlio Bolones. Agora nueuamente traduzido de Toscano en Romance Castellano por Francisco de Villalpando Architecto ddirigio al muy alto y muy Poderoso Senor Don Philipe principe de Espana, nunestro Senor, Toledo, 1552, facsimile edition with introduction by G. Kubler, Valencia, 1977.
Kubler
Tercero y Qvarto libro de Architectura de Sebastia Serlio Bolones. Agora nueuamente traduzido de Toscano en Romance Castellano por Francisco de Villalpando Architecto ddirigio al muy alto y muy Poderoso Senor Don Philipe principe de Espana, nunestro Senor
1977
45
Fol. 5v-6
n. 48
46
Kubler, Escorial, 15-28
Kubler
15
Escorial
47
Kubler, Escorial, 2x
Kubler
2x
Escorial
48
E. Llaguno and C. Bermuidez, Noticias de los arquitectos y arquitectura en Espana desde su restauracion, Madrid, 1829, II, 332-339
Llaguno
332
II
Noticias de los arquitectos y arquitectura en Espana desde su restauracion
1829
49
"The Career ofJuan de Mijares and the Reform of Spanish Architecture under Philip II," JSAH, 32 (1974), 122-132
Wilkinson
122
32
JSAH
1974
Kubler, Escorial, 22-41
Kubler
22
Escorial
Fr. J. Zarco Cuevas, Documentos para la historia del Monasterio de San Lorenzo El Real de El Escorial, III, Madrid, 1918
Cuevas
III
Documentos para la historia del Monasterio de San Lorenzo El Real de El Escorial
1918
50
J. Onians, "The Last Judgement of Renaissance Architecture,"Journal of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, 1980, 701-720
Onians
701
Journal of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts
1980
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