American romantic suburbs of the 1850s and 1860s have traditionally been considered the progeny of at least four prior phenomena: romantic cemetery planning, picturesquely landscaped urban parks in England, A. J. Downing's efforts to promote a consciously "rural" style of American landscape gardening, and a growing interest in family life and domesticity. But a variety of prototypes for American romantic suburbs already existed in England, not only in parks but also in resorts and metropolitan suburbs. Many of these were known to American travelers since the 1830s. The impetus for adopting such prototypes in America-and for developing indigenous, American suburban types-can be tied to an important development in the history of American ideas. During the 1840s and 1850s the long standing conflict between ideals of "country" and "city"-the conflict between agrarian gentility and mercantile progress, and also between rural independence and cultural sophistication-was at least partly resolved by suggestions that both could flourish together, if only the detrimental aspects of each could be avoided. There followed a variety of proposals for suburbs that, according to their proponents, would become superior residential environments by providing the amenities of both country and city while eliminating the disadvantages of each.

1
Staten Island Improvement Commission, Report of a Preliminary Scheme of Improvements (1871)
Report of a Preliminary Scheme of Improvements
1871
Albert Fein, ed., Landscape into Cityscape, Ithaca, 1968, 180
Fein
180
Landscape into Cityscape
1968
2
"Landscape-Gardening," The Crayon, Iv:8, Aug. 1857, 248.
Landscape-Gardening
8
IV
The Crayon
3
Christopher Tunnard, "The Romantic Suburb in America," Maga- zine of Art, 40:5, May 1947, 184-187.
Tunnard
May
184
40
Magazine of Art
1947
Frederick Law Olmsted, Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England, New York, 1852, 74-82
Olmsted
74
Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England
1852
4
Mount Auburn in Cambridge (183 1)
Laurel Hill in Philadelphia (1836)
Greenwood in Brooklyn (1838)
The Making of Urban America, Princeton, 1965, 339-348
339
The Making of Urban America
1965
"The American City: The Ideal and the Real," in Edgar Kaufmann, Jr., ed., The Rise of an American Architecture, New York, 1970, 81-101, and especially 09 n. 65
Kaufmann
The American City: The Ideal and the Real
81
The Rise of an American Architecture
1970
The Picturesque Pocket Com- panion, and Visitor's Guide, through Mount Auburn, Boston, 1839
The Picturesque Pocket Companion, and Visitor's Guide, through Mount Auburn
1839
N. Cleaveland, Green-Wood, New York, 1847
Cleaveland
Green-Wood
1847
Toward an Urban Vision, Lexington, Ky., 1975, 180-184
180
Toward an Urban Vision
1975
"La Ville Bourgeoise," Architectural De- sign, 51:10/II, 1981, 4-12
10
4
51
Architectural Design
1981
"Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey," Antiques, CVII:I, Jan. 1975, 142-158
Jan.
142
CVII
Antiques
1975
Llewellyn Park community in "Idealism and the Origin of the First American Suburb: Llewellyn Park, New Jersey," The American Art Journal, XI:4, Oct. 1979, 79-90
Park
Oct.
79
xI
The American Art Journal
1979
5
Raymond Williams, The Country and the City, New York, 1973
Williams
The Country and the City
1973
Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden, New York, 1964
Marx
The Machine in the Garden
1964
John Archer, "Rus in Urbe: Classical Ideals of Country and City in British Town Planning," Studies in Eighteenth- Century Culture, XII, 1983, 159-186
Archer
159
XII
Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture
1983
6
Reports of the Commissioners of His Majesty's Woods, Forests, and Land Reve- nues in the British Parliamentary Papers for 1812, 1816, 1819, 1823, and 1826
Reports of the Commissioners of His Majesty's Woods, Forests, and Land Revenues in the British Parliamentary Papers for 1812
1826
7
Thomas H. Shepherd (illus.) and James Elmes, Metropolitan Im- provements
Shepherd
Metropolitan Improvements
London in the Nineteenth Century, London, 1827, 12, 22
22
12
London in the Nineteenth Century
1827
J. Britton and A. Pugin, Illustrations of the Public Buildings of London, London, 1828, 11, 231
Britton
231
11
Illustrations of the Public Buildings of London
1828
8
John Summerson, The Life and Work of John Nash, Cambridge, Mass., 1980
Summerson
The Life and Work of John Nash
1980
Ann Saun- ders, Regent's Park, Newton Abbot, 1969
Saunders
1969
Regent's Park
Survey of London, Vol. XXI, London, 1949, 153-158 and pls. 87-99
153
XXI
Survey of London
1949
9
S. Y. Griffith, Griffith's New Historical Description of Cheltenham, London, 1826 and later editions
Griffith
Griffith's New Historical Description of Cheltenham
1826
Gwen Hart, A History of Cheltenham, Leicester, 1965
Hart
A History of Cheltenham
1965
Simonia Pakenham, Cheltenham A Biog- raphy, London, 1971
Pakenham
Cheltenham A Biography
1971
Steven Blake, Cheltenham Historical Walks No i, The Pittville Estate, Cheltenham, n.d
Blake
Cheltenham Historical Walks No i, The Pittville Estate
10
John Britton, Descriptive Sketches of Tunbridge Wells and the Calverley Estate, London, 1832, vii.
Britton
vii
Descriptive Sketches of Tunbridge Wells and the Calverley Estate
1832
A. B. Granville, The Spas of England, London, 1841, II, 622-623
Granville
622
II
The Spas of England
1841
William Gaspey, Brack- ett's Descriptive Illustrated Guide to Tunbridge Wells, London, 1863, 23
Gaspey
23
Brackett's Descriptive Illustrated Guide to Tunbridge Wells
1863
Christopher Hussey, "Calverley Park, Tunbridge Wells," Country Life, CXLV:3765-3766, I
Hussey
3765
CXLV
Country Life
8 May 1969, 180- 183, 1166-1169
Alan Savidge, Royal Tunbridge Wells, Tun- bridge Wells, 1975
Savidge
Royal Tunbridge Wells
1975
11
Warwick County Record Office, C.R. 1247
Robin Chaplin, "New Light on the Origins of Royal Leamington Spa," in Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeo- logical Society, Transactions, LXXXVI, 1974, 148-166
Chaplin
148
LXXXVI
Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society
1974
St. Leonards, see John Manwaring Baines, Burton's St. Leonards, Hastings, 1956
12
T. C. Barker and Michael Robbins, A History of London Transport, London, 1963
Barker
A History of London Transport
1963
13
Manchester As It Is, Manchester, 1839, 18z.
18z
Manchester As It Is
1839
Maurice Spiers, Victoria Park Manchester, Manchester, 1976
Spiers
Victoria Park Manchester
1976
note 60 below
14
"Articles of Agreement Regulating the Use, Holding, and Enjoy- ment of the Rock Park Estate," zi February 1837.
Articles of Agreement Regulating the Use, Holding, and Enjoyment of the Rock Park Estate
1837
An article in the Liverpool Mercury, XXVII:1362, 9 June 1837, 182
9 June
18z
XXVII
Liverpool Mercury
1837
E. Hubbard, "Commuter Country: 1837," Cheshire Round, 1966, 185-187, 194
Hubbard
185
Cheshire Round
1966
Hawthorne, The English Notebooks, ed. Ran- dell Stewart, New York, 1941, zz-23, 118-119
Hawthorne
zz
The English Notebooks
1941
15
John Claudius Loudon, The Suburban Gardener, and Villa Com- panion, London, 1838, 9-10.
Loudon
9
The Suburban Gardener, and Villa Companion
1838
16
fn. 3
George F. Chadwick, The Works of Sir Joseph Pax- ton, London, 1961, 49-53
Chadwick
49
The Works of Sir Joseph Paxton
1961
17
Ibid., 46-48, and fn. 41.
46
18
Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England, London, 1848, IV, 385-386
Lewis
385
IV
A Topographical Dictionary of England
1848
The Liverpool Mercury, XXXII:1650, 23 Dec. 1842, 418
23 Dec.
418
XXXII
The Liverpool Mercury
1842
The Liverpool Mercury, XXXIV:1722, 10 May 1844, 158
10 May
158
XXXIV
The Liverpool Mercury
1844
H. M. Addey, The Royal Picturesque Hand-Book of Liver- pool, Liverpool, 1852, 147-148
Addey
147
The Royal Picturesque Hand-Book of Liverpool
1852
19
Morton and Lucia White, The Intellectual versus the City, Cambridge, Mass., 1962
White
The Intellectual versus the City
1962
Marx, Machine in the Garden
Marx
Machine in the Garden
Bender, Toward an Urban Vision;
Bender
Toward an Urban Vision
Charles N. Glaab and A. Theodore Brown, A History of Urban America, znd ed., New York, 1976.
Glaab
A History of Urban America
1976
20
Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, London, 1787, 275.
Jefferson
275
Notes on the State of Virginia
1787
White, Intellectual versus the City, 14-19
White
14
Intellectual versus the City
Bender, Toward an Urban Vision, ix-xii
Bender
ix
Toward an Urban Vision
Glaab and Brown, Urban America, 46-47
Glaab
46
Urban America
21
Charles Brockden Brown, Arthur Mervyn, ed. Sydney J. Krause, et al., Kent, Ohio, 1980, 3, 10, 293.
Brown
3
Arthur Mervyn
1980
22
Timothy Dwight, Travels in New England and New York, ed. Barbara Miller Solomon, Cambridge, Mass., 1969, iv, 12.
Dwight
12
iv
Travels in New England and New York
1969
23
"Introduction. The Democratic Principle," The United States Magazine and Democratic Review, I:I, Oct.-Dec. 1837, 13.
Oct.
13
I
The United States Magazine and Democratic Review
1837
24
Andrew Jackson Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 8th ed., New York, n.d., 352, 18, vii, viii.
Downing
8
vii
A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening
25
Sidney George Fisher's diary, A Philadelphia Perspec- tive, ed. Nicholas B. Wainwright, Philadelphia, 1967, 189, 201-202
Fisher
189
A Philadelphia Perspective
1967
26
Review of Landscape Gardening, The United States Magazine and Democratic Review, xvi:82, Apr. 1845, 361, 349, 351.
Apr.
361
xvi
Review of Landscape Gardening, The United States Magazine and Democratic Review
1845
27
S. B. Gookins, "Hints on the Formation of Rural Taste," Horti- culturist, 111:100, Apr. 1849, 469.
Gookins
Apr.
469
111
Horticulturist
1849
28
[Susan Fenimore Cooper], Rural Hours, New York, 1850, v
Cooper
v
Rural Hours
1850
Re- view of Rural Hours, Horticulturist, VI:4, Apr. 1851, 192.
Apr.
192
VI
Review of Rural Hours, Horticulturist
1851
29
Henry David Thoreau, "Walking," in Writings, Walden Edition, New York, 1968, v, 205, zz8, zz6.
Thoreau
205
v
Writings
1968
30
George Tucker, Progress of the United States in Population and Wealth, New York, 1843, 128-129.
Tucker
128
Progress of the United States in Population and Wealth
1843
31
"Life in a great city is, at best, a war with nature." Henry P. Tappan, A Step from the New World to the Old, and Back Again, New York, 1852, 1, 79.
Tappan
Life in a great city is, at best, a war with nature
1
A Step from the New World to the Old, and Back Again
1852
32
Henry P. Tappan, The Growth of Cities, New York, 1855, 15-17, 30.
Tappan
15
The Growth of Cities
1855
33
[Henry Whitney Bellows], "Cities and Parks," The Atlantic Monthly, VII:42, Apr. 1861, 419, 420, 416, 418, 419.
Bellows
Apr.
419
VII
The Atlantic Monthly
1861
34
Marx, Machine in the Garden, Chapter v
Marx
Chapter v
Machine in the Garden
35
[Alexander Slidell Mackenzie], The American in England, New York, 1835, 1, 179-181, 183-184, 186-188.
Mackenzie
1
The American in England
1835
36
J. Fenimore Cooper, England, London, 1837, I, z16, 66; II, 142.
Cooper
I
England
1837
Thomas Bender, "James Fenimore Cooper and the City," New York History, LI:3, Apr. 1970, 287-305
Bender
Apr.
287
LI
New York History
1970
37
"Regent's Park, Immense city, very dull city." Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Edward Waldo Em- erson and Waldo Emerson Forbes, Boston and New York, 1910, III, 173
Emerson
173
III
Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson
1910
38
Ibid., vi, 506.
506
39
William Cullen Bryant, The Poetical Works, New York, 1925, 80.
Bryant
80
The Poetical Works
1925
Idem, Poems, New York, 1840, 248.
248
40
Letters, ed. William Cullen Bryant II and Thomas G. Voss, New York, 1975-, I, 465-473
Bryant
465
I
Letters
1975
Parke Godwin, A Biography of William Cullen Bryant, New York, 1883, 1, 335
Godwin
1
A Biography of William Cullen Bryant
1883
fn. 35
Bryant's editorial appeared in The Evening Post, XLII, 3 July 1844, 2.
Bryant
3 July
2
XLII
The Evening Post
1844
41
William Cullen Bryant, Letters ofa Traveller, London, 1850, 150.
Bryant
150
Letters ofa Traveller
1850
James Martineau, a resident of Prince's Park (Letters, ed. Bryant and Voss, II, 313)
Martineau
313
II
a resident of Prince's Park
42
Letters of a Traveller, 169-170.
169
Letters of a Traveller
43
John Merridew, Memoranda of Leamington Priors, Warwick, 1822, 13.
Merridew
13
Memoranda of Leamington Priors
1822
44
Review of Big Abel and the Little Manhattan, The American Re- view, II:5, Nov. 1845, 536.
Nov.
536
II
Review of Big Abel and the Little Manhattan, The American Review
1845
45
Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Blithedale Romance, Boston, 1852, 17, 167, 173
Hawthorne
17
The Blithedale Romance
1852
46
Albert Brisbane, A Concise Exposition of the Doctrine of Associa- tion, New York, 1843, 54, 24.
Brisbane
54
A Concise Exposition of the Doctrine of Association
1843
Social Revolutionist for January, 1856
Social Revolutionist
1856
John Humphrey Noyes, His- tory of American Socialisms, Philadelphia, 1870, 498
Noyes
498
History of American Socialisms
1870
Frederick Law Olmsted, future planner of Riverside, visited in 1852
Olmsted
future planner of Riverside
1852
Papers, ed. Charles Capen McLaughlin, Baltimore, 1977, I, 376
McLaughlin
376
I
Papers
1977
Report to the Staten Island Improvement Commission (1871): Consideration of "the esthetic,"
Fein, Landscape into Cityscape, 184
Fein
184
Landscape into Cityscape
47
"You do not tell me what Ranlett said about our house." Letters, ed. Bryant and Voss, II, 337
Bryant
You do not tell me what Ranlett said about our house
337
II
Letters
48
Col. N. Barrett of Staten Island (The Architect, New York, 1847, I, 61)
Barrett
61
I
The Architect
1847
Hugh Powell, Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences
Powell
Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences
Fein, Landscape into Cityscape, 193
Fein
193
Landscape into Cityscape
49
Ranlett, The Architect, I, 19.
Ranlett
19
I
The Architect
50
"The Horticultural Festival at Faneuil Hall, Boston," Horticul- turist, III:5, Nov. 1848, 235.
Nov.
235
III
Horticulturist
1848
51
Horticulturist, IV:Iz, June 1850, 537-541
June
537
IV
Horticulturist
1850
A. J. Downing, Rural Essays, ed. George William Curtis, New York, 1857, 236-243
Downing
236
Rural Essays
1857
52
Frederick Law Olmsted, whose work included Riverside, knew this essay and apparently thought of it favorably (Papers, ed. McLaugh- lin, I, 362).
Olmsted
362
I
Riverside, knew this essay and apparently thought of it favorably
53
Downing, Rural Essays, 553.
Downing
553
Rural Essays
Horticulturist, VI:6, June 1851, z81-z86
June
z81
VI
Horticulturist
1851
54
Gervase Wheeler, Homes for the People, New York, 1855, I, 3, 69.
Wheeler
3
I
Homes for the People
1855
pp. 24, I 17
55
Henry W. Cleaveland, William Backus, and Samuel D. Backus, Village and Farm Cottages, New York, 1856, z9.
Cleaveland
z9
Village and Farm Cottages
1856
56
Calvert Vaux, Villas and Cottages, New York, 1857, z67.
Vaux
z67
Villas and Cottages
1857
57
the author of "Suburban Gardening" (Horticultur- ist, VII:10, Oct. 1852, 447-448)
Oct.
447
VII
Horticulturist
1852
58
"Editor's Easy Chair," Harper's, VII:37, June 1853, 129-130.
Harper
129
VII
Editor's Easy Chair
1853
59
"Parks versus Villages," Horticulturist, n.s. VI:4, Apr. 1856, 153- 155.
Apr.
153
VI
Horticulturist
1856
60
On Daniels's work at Llewellyn Park see "Landscape-Gardening" (fn. z). His return from Europe was announced in "Howard Daniels, Esq.," Horticulturist, n.s. vi:z, Feb. 1856, 98
Daniel
Landscape-Gardening
98
Horticulturist
1856
"Villa Parks," Horticulturist, n.s. XIni, 1858, 495-496
495
Horticulturist
1858
61
Charles Caldwell, "Thoughts on the Moral and Other Indirect Influences of Rail-Roads," The New-England Magazine, 11:4, Apr. 1832, 292
Caldwell
Apr.
292
11
The New-England Magazine
1832
America's first common carrier railroad, the Baltimore & Ohio, had just opened in 1830.
62
George E. Woodward, Woodward's Country Homes, New York, 1865, 12-13.
Woodward
12
Woodward's Country Homes
1865
63
[George A. Ward], Description of New Brighton, [New York, 1836], 5-7.
Ward
5
Description of New Brighton
1836
64
On Haviland see Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, Staten Island an Architectural History, New York, 1979, 5
5
Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, Staten Island an Architectural History
1979
Matthew Eli Baigell, "John Haviland," Ph.D. diss., University of Penn- sylvania, 1965
Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, files 6.Arct.I 19.25 and 19.26
Haviland emigrated to the United States in 1816
At New Brighton, England
At New Brighton
William Williams Mortimer, The History of the Hundred of Wirral, London, 1847, 300-301
Mortimer
300
The History of the Hundred of Wirral
1847
E. Cuthbert Woods and P. Culverwell Brown, The Rise and Progress of Wallasey, Wallasey, 1960, 151-153
Woods
151
The Rise and Progress of Wallasey
1960
Edwards [of Dale Street, Liverpool], Plan of New Brighton, [1835?], (copy in Wallasey Library)
Edwards
Dale Street
1835
65
One of the earliest descriptions of New Brighton noted that "it promises fair to be one of the most frequented watering places in the country" (The Richmond County Mirror, I:I, July 1837, I)
it promises fair to be one of the most frequented watering places in the country
I
I
The Richmond County Mirror
1837
William Cullen Bryant's editorial proposing a public park for Manhattan he referred to New Brighton as one of the principal resorts for "short excursions" from the city ("A New Public Park," The Evening Post, XLII, 3 July 1844, 2)
Bryant
3 July
2
XLII
The Evening Post
1844
"Hotel" at New Brighton and the "Hotel" and the "Baths" at one side of the 1837 plan for Rock Park (Fig. 8)
66
[William Shinn], The Constitution of Evergreen Hamlet, [Pitts- burgh?, 1851], 2
Shinn
2
The Constitution of Evergreen Hamlet
1851
"Constitution," Shinn specifically addressed "those whose business necessarily requires their daily attendance in the city."
those whose business necessarily requires their daily attendance in the city
Charles C. Arensberg, "Evergreen Hamlet," Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, XXXVIII, 1955, 130.
Arensberg
130
XXXVIII
Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine
1955
67
[Shinn], Constitution, i. Shinn also noted the "health, comfort, and happiness" of a country location
Shinn
health, comfort, and happiness
Constitution
But unlike "the usual isolated plan of country residences" this community would have "the benefits of con- venient neighborhood, and social intercourse," of particular advantage in "the education of children" and in preventing loneliness (ibid., i-z)
Home and Education. An Address Delivered at the Opening of the School House, at Evergreen Hamlet, Pittsburgh, 1856
Delivered at the Opening of the School House, at Evergreen Hamlet
1856
68
Ibid., 5-6
5
"as similar products are sold in the market" (p. 6)
6
as similar products are sold in the market
"cultivation and exer- cise of the higher and more refined taste for rural embellishment" and for "relaxation" (p. 3)
3
cultivation and exercise of the higher and more refined taste for rural embellishment and for relaxation
1866
Arensberg, "Evergreen Ham- let," 23
Arensberg
23
Evergreen Hamlet
69
fn. 51
The Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad inaugurated service to Glendale on 18 September 1851
Cincinnati
Hamilton & Dayton Railroad inaugurated service to Glendale on 18 September 1851
1851
Glendale Heritage Preservation, Glendale's Heritage, Glen- dale, 1976, 11
Preservation
11
Glendale's Heritage
1976
70
The article, clearly indebted to Downing's "Country Villages," appeared in the Daily Cincinnati Gazette, XXIV:73 24, 6 March 185 , 2
Downing
2
XXIV
Daily Cincinnati Gazette
A nearly identical article appeared in the Daily Pittsburgh Gazette, LXIV:188, 13 March 1851, 4
4
LXIV
Daily Pittsburgh Gazette
1851
Curiously, both articles refer to a large tract "in the vicinity of Rochester, N.Y." recently "surveyed and laid off" in this manner
in the vicinity of Rochester, N.Y.
Blake McKelvey, Joseph W. Barnes, and the staff of the Monroe County Clerk's Office in a search that so far has failed to discover any evidence of such a community in the vicinity of Rochester
McKelvey
Monroe County Clerk's Office in a search that so far has failed to discover any evidence of such a community in the vicinity of Rochester
71
Glendale's Heritage, i i
Glendale
ii
Heritage
John W. Reps for bringing Glendale to my attention
Reps
bringing Glendale to my attention
72
Articles of the Lake Forest Association, Chicago, 1856
Lake Forest Association
1856
A.H.G., "Lake Forest the Beautiful Suburb of Chicago," House and Garden, v:6, June 1904, 264-275
June
264
v
House and Garden
1904
American Communities Company, Lake Forest. Art and History Edition, Chicago, 1916
Lake Forest. Art and History Edition
1916
Edward Arpee, The History of Lake Forest Academy, Chicago, 1944 (including a useful reconstruction of the plan of Lake Forest as of 1868)
Arpee
The History of Lake Forest Academy
1944
idem
Lake Forest Illinois, Lake Forest, 1963
Illinois
1963
Lake Forest
73
Little is known of Haskell's personal history. On his "rheumatic complaint"
Haskell
rheumatic complaint
David Lawrence Pierson, History of the Oranges, New York, 1922, II, 306
Pierson
306
II
History of the Oranges
1922
Llewellyn Park are Davies, "Llewellyn Park," and Wilson, "Idealism."
Park
Llewellyn Park
The springs, known variously as Chalybeate Springs, Condit's Spring, and Orange Springs, were discovered and developed beginning in 1820
Condit
The springs, known variously as Chalybeate Springs
1820
mid-1830s
1823
"who seek relaxation from business and the turmoil of a city residence" (The Centinel of Freedom, XXVII:48, 12 August 1823, 3)
12 August
3
XXVII
The Centinel of Freedom
1823
Additional articles and advertisements appear in issues of the Centinel dated 15 August, 29 August, and 19 September 1820
I 8 March, 8 May, and 12 June 1821
Joseph Warren Greene, Jr., "Orange Springs a Century Ago," in New Jersey Historical Society, Proceedings, n.s. xv, July 1930, 361-371
Greene
Orange Springs a Century Ago
361
xv
New Jersey Historical Society, Proceedings
1930
Pierson, History, II, 255- 258
Pierson
255
II
History
Harry B. Weiss and Howard R. Kemble, They Took to the Waters, Trenton, 1962, 115-119
Weiss
115
They Took to the Waters
1962
Henry Whittemore, The Founders and Builders of the Oranges, Newark, 1896, 305-309
Whittemore
305
The Founders and Builders of the Oranges
1896
74
Davies, "Llewellyn Park," 143
Davies
143
Llewellyn Park
Wilson, "Idealism," 80-8
Wilson
80
Idealism
1853 and 1856
1857
Pageant in Honor of ... Llewellyn S. Haskell, [n. loc.], 1916, 8
8
Pageant in Honor of ... Llewellyn S. Haskell
1916
Tunnard, "Romantic Suburb"
Tunnard
Romantic Suburb
Wilson, "Idealism." Nevertheless sound evi- dence of Haskell's commitment to Perfectionism is scanty, and Perfec- tionist sentiments of other residents are not well documented
Wilson
Idealism
75
Thomas Hughes's Map of the Town of Orange, 1856
Hughes
Map of the Town of Orange
1856
"Map of Eagle-Ridge Property of L. S. Haskell 1856."
Map of Eagle-Ridge Property of L. S. Haskell 1856
Davis's records, and attributed the design to Haskell, as did the author of an article on "Landscape-Gardening" that appeared in 1857
Davis
Landscape-Gardening
1857
fnn. 2 and 4
Henry Winthrop Sargent's supplement to Downing's Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 6th ed., New York, 1859, Figs. 105 and 106
76
Daniels had returned by February, 1856
fn. 60
article of 1860
"plan for constructing a park, which should make the locality a desirable residence for business men of New-York" to Haskell ("Llewellyn Park at Orange, N.J.," The World, 1:74, 8 September 1860, 3)
Haskell
8 September
3
1
The World
1860
Nevertheless the article dated the "plan" to the spring of 1856
plan
1856
77
The Orange Journal, 111:47, 16 May 1857, 3
16 May
3
111
The Orange Journal
1857
November 1863
"Landscape-Gardening" in The Crayon (fn. z)
Landscape-Gardening
The Crayon
The Orange Journal for 6 June 1857 and 26 March 1859
6 June
The Orange Journal
1857
Sargent, in his supplement to Downing's Treatise, enumerated several "advantages" of this "social park" designed for "merchants or professional men, who seek a refuge from ... the city" (pp. 571, 567)
February 1857
Llewellyn Park (i.e., The Forest and The Glen, now known as The Ramble) to three trustees
Park
The Forest and The Glen
Pageant, 6-7
6
Pageant
Davies, "Llewellyn Park," 143
Davies
143
Llewellyn Park
78
Olmsted, Vaux & Co., Preliminary Report upon the Proposed Suburban Village at Riverside, New York, 1868, 3, 7.
Olmsted
3
Preliminary Report upon the Proposed Suburban Village at Riverside
1868
79
Ibid., 17, 28.
17
80
Riverside Improvement Company, Riverside in 1871, Chicago, 1871, 5, 15
5
Riverside in 1871
1871
Alonzo James's remarks in "Chicago No. III.- Riverside," The Western Home, III:3, Mar. 1870, 33-34
James
Mar.
33
III
The Western Home
1870
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