C. R. Cockerell's "Hanover Chapel" (1823-1825; dem. 1896), the architect's first major work, was an edifice of manifold importance. Although its cost was deliberately restrained by its patrons, the Church Building Commissioners, Cockerell managed to create a major monument in London's long history of church building, an ornament to Regent Street, and an intellectual essay in international neoclassicism. This article, by referring to drawings, manuscript documents, and printed reviews, analyzes in detail Cockerell's development of the twin-towered, skylightdomed design through sources in Palladio, Wren, Hawksmoor, 18th- and 19th-century Continental buildings, and paintings by Claude Lorrain. In addition, Cockerell's unusually careful orchestration of symbolic details is analyzed. Finally, the generally good critical reception, moderate influence, and lingering high reputation of the building throughout the 19th century, bring the discussion to a close.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
J. Gwilt, Elements of Architectural Criticism for the Use of Stu- dents, Amateurs, and Reviewers, London, 1837, 91.
Gwilt
91
Elements of Architectural Criticism for the Use of Students, Amateurs, and Reviewers
1837
2
"E. I. C." (E. J. Carlos) in the Gentleman's Magazine, XCV, ii, 1825, 577.
Carlos
ii
577
XCV
Gentleman's Magazine
1825
3
Daily Graphic (London), 4 August 1896.
August
4
Daily Graphic
1896
4
Library of the Fine Arts, June 1832, 519
June
519
Library of the Fine Arts
1832
Fraser's Magazine, July 1832, 714
July
714
Fraser's Magazine
1832
Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal, July 1841, 223
July
223
Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal
1841
Ecclesiologist, April 1843, 1122
April
1122
Ecclesiologist
1843
November 1843, 37-44
The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal
The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal
5
D. Watkin, The Life and Work of C. R. Cockerell, London, 1974.
Watkin
The Life and Work of C. R. Cockerell
1974
Watkin's coverage of Hanover Chapel is on pp. 136-145.
136
6
M. H. Port, Six Hundred New Churches, London, 1961
Port
Six Hundred New Churches
1961
7
Public Record Office (London) Crest 26/7 (New Street Commis- sioners Minute Book), 14 July 1820
Public Record Office
14
New Street Commissioners Minute Book
1820
26/8, 16 December 1820, 21 February 1821
St. George, Hanover Square, Vestry Minute Book (West- minster Public Library, London), 10, 17 June 1820
George
10
Hanover Square, Vestry Minute Book
1820
8
Church Commissioners file 18288, I, Letter from Rev. H. Hodgson to the Commissioners, dated 17 October 1825.
9
Commissioners file 18288, III, Letter from Vicar D. Long to the Commissioners, dated 15 November 1882.
Io
St. George, Hanover Square Committee relative to building new churches or chapels (Westminster Library, Archives Department, ref. C. 988), 6 April 1821.
George
Hanover Square Committee relative to building new churches or chapels
1821
ii
Public record Office Crest 26/8. 13 February, 31 March 1821.
Royal Academy Catalogue, 1821, no. 976.
976
Royal Academy Catalogue
1821
14
Gentleman's Magazine, XCV, ii, 18Z5, 577
ii
577
XCV
Gentleman's Magazine
1825
XCVI, i, May 1828, 443
C. R. Cockerell, "An Account of Hanover Chapel, in Regent Street," in J. Britton and A. Pugin, Illustrations of the Public Buildings of London, 2 vols., London, 1825-1828, II, 279
Cockerell
An Account of Hanover Chapel, in Regent Street
279
II
Illustrations of the Public Buildings of London
Watkin, Cockerell, 144
Watkin
144
Cockerell
15
Soane's Finished mss. copies of the Lectures, in Sir John Soane's Museum, London
Soane, Lectures on Architecture, ed. A. Bolton, London, 1927, 89 and pl. 68
Soane
89
Lectures on Architecture
1927
16
Cockerell, Diary, 29 April, 7 May 1821.
Cockerell
29 April
Diary
1821
17
Cockerell, Diary, 19 April 1821
Cockerell
April
19
Diary
1821
St. George's Committee, 19 April 1821
St. George's Committee, 19 April 1821
1821
18
Diary entries referring to St. Philip's on 16 April, 11 November 1822
"Occasional Memoranda" after 28 April 1822
28 April
Occasional Memoranda
1822
16 May, 3 June 1824
Cockerell's faqade elevation, longitudinal sec- tion, and plan (on one sheet) of St. Philip's, in the V. & A., DD7, E. 2984-1909
Cockerell
longitudinal section, and plan
2984
19
Cockerell, Diary, 11 June 18zz
Cockerell
11 June
Diary
1822
Watkin, 137
137
zo
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 280.
Cockerell
280
Hanover Chapel
Watkin, Cockerell, 144-145
Watkin
144
Cockerell
21
Cockerell, Diary, "Occasional Memoranda" after 2.5 November 1821.
Cockerell
November
Diary
1821
22
J.-F. Neufforge, Recueil élémentaire d'architecture, 9 vols., Paris, 1757-1780
Neufforge
Recueil élémentaire d'architecture
1757
Farnborough, 1967, supp. I, pl. III
pls. II and IV
23
Grands Prix d'Architecture, Paris, 1818, pls. 70-72, the project by E.-J.-L. Grillon, dated 1809, reproduced here
Grillon
70
Grands Prix d'Architecture
1818
Projets d'archi- tecture et autres productions de cet art, Paris, 1806, pls. 100-102, a project by L.-H. Lebas, dated 1806
Lebas
100
Projets d'architecture et autres productions de cet art
1806
J. Summerson, Architecture in Britain 1530-1830, Baltimore, 1963, 316
Summerson
316
Architecture in Britain 1530-1830
1963
Watkin, Cockerell, 138
Watkin
138
Cockerell
24
Cockerell, Diary, 19 October 1824.
Cockerell
October
19
Diary
1824
z5
Gentleman's Maga- zine
Gentleman's Magazine
Britton and Pugin's Public Buildings of London
J. Elmes and T. Shepherd, Metropolitan Improvements; or London in the Nineteenth Century, London, 1827, illustrated the chapel (our Fig. 2)
Elmes
Metropolitan Improvements; or London in the Nineteenth Century
1827
26
Cockerell, Diary, 6 July 1821
Cockerell
July
6
Diary
1821
Watkin, Cockerell, 140
Watkin
140
Cockerell
27
Cockerell, Diary, 29 April 1821
Cockerell
April
29
Diary
1821
Watkin, Cockerell, 139
Watkin
139
Cockerell
28
Cockerell, Diary, 15 April, inserted page opposite 14-17 April 1823
Cockerell
April
15
Diary
1823
Watkin, Cockerell, 138
Watkin
138
Cockerell
29
n. 27
30
Cockerell, Diary, inserted page opposite 16-19 September 1822.
Cockerell
September
Diary
1822
Gentle- man's Magazine, XCV, ii, 1825, 577.
ii
577
XCV
Gentleman's Magazine
1825
31
Cockerell, Diary, 29 April 1811
Cockerell
29 April
Diary
1811
Watkin, Cockerell, 139
Watkin
139
Cockerell
32
Cockerell, Diary, 16 February 1821.
Cockerell
February
16
Diary
1821
33
Cockerell, Diary, 26 and 28 February 1821.
Cockerell
February
26
Diary
1821
34
Cockerell, Diary, 16 April 1821
Cockerell
April
16
Diary
1821
3 5
Cockerell, Diary, 6 July 1821
Cockerell
July
6
Diary
1821
Watkin, Cockerell, 140
Watkin
140
Cockerell
36
Cockerell, Diary, 5 May, 14 August 1823
Cockerell
May
5
Diary
1823
Watkin, Cockerell, 139
Watkin
139
Cockerell
37
Cockerell, Diary, 1 August 1822
Cockerell
1 August
Diary
1822
Watkin, Cockerell, 138
Watkin
138
Cockerell
Vanbrugh's "Design for a person of quality in Dorsetshire," illustrated by C. Campbell in Vitruvius Britannicus, 3 vols., London 1715-1725, II, 3, 53
Vanbrugh
Design for a person of quality in Dorsetshire
3
II
Campbell in Vitruvius Britannicus
1715
38
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 280.
Cockerell
280
Hanover Chapel
39
Cockerell, Diary, 25, 26, 27-28, 29 June, "Occasional Memo- randa" after I July 1822
Cockerell
29 June
26
25
Diary
Queen Anne Fifty New Churches Act of 1711
40
Cockerell, Diary, 2 July, 211 October 1821
Cockerell
July
211
2
Diary
1821
"Occasional Memoranda" after 28 April, 7, 12 May, 13 September 1822z
April
28
Occasional Memoranda
1822
zo April 1823
n. 18
41
Cockerell, Diary, 12 July 1821, 12 September 1822.
Cockerell
12 July
Diary
1821
Quarterly Review for July 1822
July
Quarterly Review
1822
42
Cockerell, Diary, "Occasional Memoranda" after 7 April 182zz.
Cockerell
7 April
Diary
1822
43
Cockerell, Diary, inserted page after 25-28 April 1822.
Cockerell
28 April
z25
Diary
1822
44
Cockerell's Diary under "Occasional Memoranda" after 12 November 1826
Cockerell
12 Novembe
Diary
1826
Athenaeum, 25 February 1843, 188
25 February
188
Athenaeum
1843
45
"DESIGN FOR A CHAPEL PROPOSED TO BE BUILT IN REGENT STREET," is probably the one exhibited at the Royal Academy in 18zz22 (no. 853)
22
Design For A Chapel Proposed To Be Built In Regent Street
1822
Cockerell himself (Diary, 12 July 1822)
Cockerell
12 July
Diary
1822
Diary, 17, 26 June 1821
26 June
17
Diary
1821
Watkin, Cockerell, 139
Watkin
139
Cockerell
46
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 281.
Cockerell
281
Hanover Chapel
47
Cockerell, Diary, 3 May 18zz.
Cockerell
3 May
Diary
1822
48
W. Bardwell, Temples Ancient and Modern; or, Notes on Church Architecture, London, 1837, 95-96, n.
Bardwell
95
Temples Ancient and Modern; or, Notes on Church Architecture
1837
49
Cockerell, Diary, 27 February and I March 1821.
Cockerell
27 February
Diary
1821
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 278
Cockerell
278
Hanover Chapel
Watkin, Cockerell, 142
Watkin
142
Cockerell
50
Cockerell, Diary, 3 June 1824.
Cockerell
3 June
Diary
1824
5
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 278-279.
Cockerell
278
Hanover Chapel
52
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 279.
Cockerell
279
Hanover Chapel
53
Cockerell, Diary, 4 May 1824
Cockerell
4 May
Diary
1824
54
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 278.
Cockerell
278
Hanover Chapel
55
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 79
Cockerell
79
Hanover Chapel
56
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 280.
Cockerell
280
Hanover Chapel
n. 2, 14
Gentleman's Magazine in 1825
Gentleman's Magazine
1825
57
Cockerell, Diary, ii, 12, 15 July 1821
Cockerell
12
ii
Diary
1821
2 July 18z4
20, 21 January, 4, 7 March 1825
Cockerell, "Hanover Chapel," 279
Cockerell
279
Hanover Chapel
Victoria and Albert Museum DD 6, E. 2044-1909
58
New Monthly Magazine, XXI, i January 1827, 15
i
15
XXI
New Monthly Magazine
1827
Literary Gazette, 23 June 1827, 396
23 June
396
Literary Gazette
1827
59
Cockerell, Diary, 10 February 1826
Cockerell
10 February
Diary
1826
Wat- kin, Cockerell, 145
Watkin
145
Cockerell
St. George's Committee, 11 February 1826
George
11 February
Committee
1826
60
Cockerell, Diary, 30-31 December 1822.
Cockerell
December
30
Diary
1822
L. Johnson, "Gericault and Delacroix seen by Cockerell," Burlington Magazine, CXIII, 1971, 547-55110.2307/876744
547
Watkin, Cockerell, 94
Watkin
94
Cockerell
61
Watkin, Cockerell, 143-144
Watkin
143
Cockerell
n. 4
St. Anne's on z7 June 182.1
Diary, 17 June, 16 July 18211
17 June
Diary
1821
62
Cockerell, Diary, 26 February
Cockerell
26 February
Diary
20 May
26-29 May, I, 3, 4, II June 18 11
63
Somerset House Gazette, 27 March 1824, 395-396
27 March
395
Somerset House Gazette
1824
Literary Chronicle, 2 October 1824, 639
2 October
639
Literary Chronicle
1824
2 July 1825, 430-431
The Mirror, 15 January 1815, 33-34
15 January
33
The Mirror
1815
5 February 1825, 85-86
64
Literary Gazette, 3 April 1824, 117.
3 April
117
Literary Gazette
1824
65
Cockerell, Diary, 11 June 1822
Cockerell
June
11
Diary
1822
to January 1825
66
Cockerell, Diary, 15 February 1825.
Cockerell
15 February
Diary
1825
Cockerell, Diary, "Occasional Memoranda" after 5 March 18z6
Cockerell
5 March
Diary
1826
67
Cockerell, Diary, 28 February
Cockerell
28 February
Diary
24-27 Febru- ary 1823
8 September 1824
26-29 January 1824
68
Gentleman's Magazine, Public Buildings of London, and Metropolitan Improvements, and in note 63
Gentleman's Magazine
Gentleman's Magazine, XCVIII, i, 18z8, 443-444
i
443
XCVIII
Gentleman's Magazine
1828
T. Allen, The History and Antiquities of London Westminster Southwark and Parts Adjacent, 4 vols., London, 1828, IV, 356-358
Allen
356
IV
The History and Antiquities of London Westminster Southwark and Parts Adjacent
1828
69
Cockerell, Diary, 6 May, io July 18zz.
Cockerell
6 May
Diary
1822
Fig. z8, V. & A. DD7, E. 3008-1909
70
Cockerell, Diary, 23 Au- gust 1823
Cockerell
23 August
Diary
1823
15 September 1823 "Smirke called. to consider Greek Ionic."
15 September
Smirke called. to consider Greek Ionic
1823
71
dissertation, chapters V, VII, and VIII
73
Gentleman's Magazine, xcvI, ii, 1826, 201-203
ii
201
XCVI
Gentleman's Magazine
1826
Cockerell, Diary, 7 August 1827
Cockerell
7 August
Diary
1827
J. Soane, Designs for Public and Private Buildings, London 1828, 26
Soane
26
Designs for Public and Private Buildings
1828
Soane Museum Correspondence 2, Div. X, C1, nos. 98, 169
98
169
2
Soane Museum Correspondence
74
Cockerell, Diary, 5 August 1823.
Cockerell
5 August
Diary
1823
75
dissertation, 449-503
Watkin, Cockerell, 252
Watkin
252
Cockerell
Cockerell's last church, St. Bartholomew, Moor Lane, London (1849-1850
Bartholomew
Cockerell's last church
1850
demolished 1902
77
W. Thornbury and E. Walfard, Old and New London, 6 vols., London 1873-1878, IV, 252
Thornbury
252
IV
Old and New London
1878
78
Church Commissioners file 71401
Times (Lon- don), 19 February 1891, 3
19 February
3
Times
1891
24 February 1891,4
5 March 1891, I
28 March 1891, 5
3 April 1891, 15
7 April 1891, 12
Builder, LX, 3 January 1891, 15
3 January
15
LX
Builder
1891
28 February 1891, 163
7 March 1891, 194
4 April 1891, 264
LxvIII, 2 March 1895, 166 and plate
R.I.B.A. Journal, N.S. VII, 5 March 1891, 193, zoz, z14-z25
5 March
N.S.
193
VII
R.I.B.A. Journal
1891
Architect, XLVII, 8 January 1892, 29 and pls.
8 January
29
XLVII
Architect
1892
15 January 1892, 45 and pls.
P. Waterhouse, "Hano- ver Chapel," R.I.B.A. Journal, N.S. IV, 31 December 1896, 111-114
Waterhouse
31 December
N.S.
111
IV
R.I.B.A. Journal
1896
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