About 1278 a new elevation appeared in northwestern England at St. Werburg's, Chester. Copied at Guisborough and Exeter, and via Exeter in Breton churches, the elevation used a tall clerestory to balance the height of the main arcade; in between ran a short triforium containing a wall passage. Its date uncertain, the Chester elevation has not been recognized as original or significant. Moreover, historians have queried the authenticity of the medieval fabric restored in the 19th century, and have avoided discussing the issues of elevation design and structure in English architecture. At St. Werburg's, architectural details and an elevation containing superposed wall passages are fused with English tradition. The balanced design seems easily explained as a post-Westminster modernization of a variant English design, the low triforium elevation. This type of elevation appeared periodically, but no English building provided the primary source for Chester. St. Werburg's was apparently derived from a Burgundian design brought by Savoyard masons working in north Wales. The motivation of the Chester master and the relationship of this elevation to English tradition, however, are more difficult problems to solve. An examination of the Chester elevation illuminates a complex interrelationship between influences and traditions. In post-Westminster England, foreign ideas stimulated architects to develop certain indigenous traditions, radically changing English architecture. As a result, English builders took the lead in developing later architectural fashions. Although not part of this new work, the St. Werburg's elevation challenged older English formulas in a manner that permitted these changes.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Virginia Jansen, "The Architecture of the Thirteenth-Century Rebuilding at St. Wer- burg's, Chester," Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1975 (University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, 76-15,235)
"Werburg" adopted in The Life of St. Werburg by Goscelin the Monk, translated by N. J. Munday, Chester, 1974
Werburg
The Life of St
1974
2
George Gilbert Scott, "On the Architectural History of Chester Cathedral As Developed During the Present Work of Restoration," Journal of the Chester and North Wales Architectural, Archaeological, and Historic Society, iii, 1863- 1885, 159-182
Scott
159
iii
Journal of the Chester and North Wales Architectural, Archaeological, and Historic Society
1863
idem, Personaland Professional Recollections, ed. Giles Gilbert Scott, London, 1879, 330-336
Scott
330
Personaland Professional Recollections
1879
3
David Knowles and R. Neville Hadcock, Medieval Religious Houses: England and Wales, London, '953, 62
Knowles
62
Medieval Religious Houses: England and Wales
1953
4
Howard Montagu Colvin, ed., The History of the King's Works, 2 vols., London, 1963, I, 228-29, 93, 330-332, 309-311, 465
Colvin
330
93
The History of the King's Works
1963
II, 608-609
A. J. Taylor, "Castle-building in Wales in the Later Thirteenth Century: The Prelude to Construction," in E. M. Jope, ed&, Studies in Building History, London, 1961, 104-133
Taylor
Castle-building in Wales in the Later Thirteenth Century: The Prelude to Construction
104
Studies in Building History
1961
5
Jean Bony in "La technique normande du mur epais a I'epoque romane," Bulletin Monumental, xcviiil, 1939, 153-188
Bony
153
xcviiil
Bulletin Monumental
1939
7
Jean Bony, "French Influences on the Origins of English Gothic Architecture," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, xii, 1949, passim.10.2307/750252
8
Jean Bony, The English Decorated Style: Gothic Architecture Transformed 1250-13 50 (The Wrightsman Lectures, 10), Oxford and Ithaca, 1979, 3-4
Bony
3
The English Decorated Style: Gothic Architecture Transformed 1250-13 50
1979
Steven Wander, "Westminster Abbey: A Case Study in the Meaning of Medieval Architecture," Ph.D. disserta- tion, Stanford University, 1975 (University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, 75-13,613)
Robert Branner, "Westminster Abbey and the French Court Style," ISAH, xxII, 1964, 3-18
Branner
3
xxII
ISAH
1964
Colvin, i, 130-157
9
Branner, "Westminster Abbey," 1964, 12-13.
Branner
12
Westminster Abbey
1964
10
Bony, "French Influences," 1949, 14, note i
Bony
14
French Influences
1949
11
Bony, Decorated Style, chapter I, especially 4-7
Bony
chapter I
4
Decorated Style
12
William Dugdale, The History of St. Paul's Cathedral in London from Its Foundation until These Times, London, 1658
Dugdale
The History of St. Paul's Cathedral in London from Its Foundation until These Times
1658
W. R. Lethaby ("Old Saint Paul's," The Builder, cxxxvii, 1930, 671-673, 862-864, 1091-1093
Lethaby
671
cxxxvii
Old Saint Paul's
1930
cxxxix, 24-26, 193-194, 234-236, 393-395, 613-615, 791-793, 1005- 1007, 1988-1990
R. H. C. Finch ("Old St. Paul's: A Reconstruc- tion," The Builder, cxlviii, 1935,722, 728-730,772-773)
Finch
728
cxlviii
The Builder
1935
Maurice Hastings (St. Stephen's Chapel and Its Place in the Development of Perpendicular Style in England, Cambridge, 1955, 5-12)
Hastings
5
St. Stephen's Chapel and Its Place in the Development of Perpendicular Style in England
1955
Robert Branner (St. Louis and the Court Style in Gothic Architecture, London, 1965, 120-121)
Branner
120
St. Louis and the Court Style in Gothic Architecture
1965
13
James Tait, ed., The Chartulary or Register of the Abbey of St. Werburgh Chester, Chetham Society, N.s., lxxix, 1920, 225, No. 324
Tait
225
lxxix
The Chartulary or Register of the Abbey of St. Werburgh Chester, Chetham Society
1920
,I, 311-311, 320-322
Tait, 2121, No. 316
George Ormerod, The History of the County Palatine and City of Chester, zd ed. revised and enlarged by Thomas Helsby, 3 vols., London, 188z, 1, 252
Ormerod
252
1
The History of the County Palatine and City of Chester
1882
15
(ca. 1940)
Jean Bony, "The Resistance to Chartres in Early Thirteenth- Century Architecture," Journal of the British Archaeological Associ- ation, 3rd series, xxi, 1958, 50
Bony
3
50
xxi
Journal of the British Archaeological Association
1958
Pierre Hdliot, "Triforiums et coursieéres dans les eglises gothiques de Bretagne et de Normandie," Annales de Normandie, xIx, 1969, 15-154
Hdliot
15
xIx
Annales de Normandie
1969
16
Bony, "Resistance to Chartres," 1958, passim
Bony
Resistance to Chartres
1958
Robert Branner, Burgundian Gothic Architecture, London, 1960, passim
Branner
Burgundian Gothic Architecture
1960
Pierre Heliot, "Passages muraux et coursieres dans les églises gothiques du Nord-Est de la France m#x00E9;di#x00E9;vale, de la Lorraine et des pays du Rhone moyen," Zeitschrift für Schweizerische Archiéologie und Kunst- geschichte, xxvII,1970, 11-43
Heliot
11
xxvII
Passages muraux et coursieres dans les églises gothiques du Nord-Est de la France m#x00E9;di#x00E9;vale, de la Lorraine et des pays du Rhone moyen," Zeitschrift für Schweizerische Archiéologie und Kunstgeschichte
1970
Bony, Decorated Style, 1 979, 14
Bony
14
Decorated Style
1979
Burnell (ca. 1270)
St. Werburg's, "a Cestria recessit et per Darnhall transiens in Anglia remeavit." Annales Cestrienses, ed. Rich- ard Copley Christie (Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, xIv), 1886
Werburg
a Cestria recessit et per Darnhall transiens in Anglia remeavit
xIv
Annales Cestrienses
1886
17
Colvin, 1, 203-205
I, 1036-1040
A. J. Taylor, "Some Notes on the Savoyards in North Wales, 1277-1300
Taylor
Some Notes on the Savoyards in North Wales, 1277-1300
Savoyard Element in the Construction of Harlech Castle, Genava, N.S. XI, 1963, 289-315
Castle
289
Genava
1963
18
note 13: Tait, Chartulary, lxxix, 215, No. 324
Tait
324
215
lxxix
Chartulary
1920
212, No. 316
19
John Hooper Harvey, English Mediaeval Architects: A Bio- graphical Dictionary down to 1955, London, 1954, 164-165 and 338
Harvey
164
English Mediaeval Architects: A Biographical Dictionary down to 1955
1954
20
Bony, "Resistance to Chartres," 1958, 47-50
Bony
47
Resistance to Chartres
1958
Marcel Grandjean in "A propos de la construction de la cathédrale de Lausanne (XII-XIIIe siecle)
Grandjean
A propos de la construction de la cathédrale de Lausanne
Notes sur la chronologie et les maitres d'oeuvre," Genava, N.S. XI, 1963, z61-286, especially 261, 275, and 284-z85
261
Genava
1963
21
Bony has suggested in the "Resistance to Chartres," 1958, 500
Bony
500
Resistance to Chartres
1958
22
Bony, "French Influences," 1949, 11
Bony
11
French Influences
1949
23
Carolyn Marino Malone, "West English Gothic Architecture, 1175-150," Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1973, 99-100
25
Malone, West English Gothic, 149 and 217
Malone
149
West English Gothic
27
note 14
28
Bony, "La technique du mur epais," 1939, 153-188
Bony
153
La technique du mur epais
1939
"Tewkesbury et Pershore: deux elevations a quatre &tages de la fin du XIe siecle," Bulletin Monumental, xcvi, 1937, 281-290
281
xcvi
Bulletin Monumental
1937
29
St. David's (ca. i 185)
Malone, West English Gothic, 99-103
Malone
99
West English Gothic
Bony, "Resistance to Chartres," 1958, 45
Bony
45
Resistance to Chartres
1958
E. W. Lovegrove's contention in "Llanthony Priory, Monmouth- shire," Archaeologia Cambrensis, xcix, I 946-1947, 7 1
Lovegrove
71
Archaeologia Cambrensis
1946
30
John Bilson, "Beverley Minster," Architectural Review, III, 1897-1898, 197-204 and 250-259
Bilson
250
III
Architectural Review
1897
Peter Brieger, English Art 226-1137, Oxford, 1957, 48
Brieger
48
English Art 226-1137
1957
31
Peter Kidson in Kidson, Peter Murray, and Paul Thompson, A History of English Architecture, rev. ed., Harmondsworth, 1965, 87
Kidson
87
A History of English Architecture
1965
Geoffrey Webb, Architecture in Britain: The Middle Ages, 2d ed., Harmondsworth, 1965, 10l
Webb
2
101
Architecture in Britain: The Middle Ages
1965
34
L. F. Salzmann, English Industries of the Middle Ages, London, 1913, 139, 144-145
Salzmann
144
139
English Industries of the Middle Ages
1913
E. M. Carus-Wilson, Medieval Merchant Venturers, znd ed., London, 1967, z2 1-213
Carus-Wilson
2
221
Medieval Merchant Venturers
1967
35
Ely (ca. 1238)
Southwell (ca. 2234)
Rievaulx (ca. 1230)
Pershore (ca. 1234)
36
Brieger, English Art, 51
Brieger
51
English Art
Webb, 13
13
37
Jansen, chapters 5, 6, and 8, pages 88-229 and 148-166.
38
C. R. Peers, "Abbey Church and Buildings," Hertfordshire, ii, Victoria History of the Counties of England, London, 1908, 486.
Peers
Abbey Church and Buildings," Hertfordshire
486
ii
Victoria History of the Counties of England
1908
39
I. C. and C. A. Buckler, A History of the Architecture of the Abbey Church of St. Alban, London, 1847, especially 46 and 60.
Buckler
A History of the Architecture of the Abbey Church of St Alban
1847
James Neale, Archi- tectural Notes on St. Albán's Abbey, n.p., 1877, 12
Neale
12
Architectural Notes on St. Albán's Abbey
1877
42
Edward S. Prior, A History of Gothic Art in England, London, 1900, 356
Prior
356
A History of Gothic Art in England
1900
Hdliot, "Triforiums de Bretagne et de Normandie," 1969, 138 and 140, note 96
Hdliot
Triforiums de Bretagne et de Normandie
1969
Webb, 1019
43
R. Gilyard-Beer, Gisborough Priory Yorkshire (Ministry of Public Building and Works: Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings), London, 1955, reprinted 1967, 5-8
Gilyard-Beer
5
Gisborough Priory Yorkshire
1967
44
John Harvey in G. E. Aylmer and Reginald Cant, eds., A History of York Minster, Oxford, 1977, 149
Harvey
149
A History of York Minster
1977
46
Nikolaus Pevsner, Yorkshire: The North Riding (The Buildings of England), Harmondsworth, 1966, 178
Pevsner
178
Yorkshire: The North Riding
1966
50
George Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter and a History of the Cathedral, Exeter, 1861
Oliver
Lives of the Bishops of Exeter and a History of the Cathedral
1861
Philip Freeman, The Architectural History of Exeter Cathedral, Exeter, 1888
Freeman
The Architectural History of Exeter Cathedral
1888
M. E. Clegg's transcripts of the fabric rolls are to be published within the next few years in the Transactions of the Devon and Corn- wall Society
Clegg
Transactions of the Devon and Cornwall Society
51
Richard K. Morris, "The Development of Later Gothic Mouldings in England c. 1205-1400-Part I," Architectural History, xxi, 1978, 27 and 31
Morris
27
xxi
Architectural History
1978
52
Vyvyan Hope and L. John Lloyd, Exeter Cathedral: A Short History and Description, Exeter, 1973, 15
Hope
15
Exeter Cathedral: A Short History and Description, Exeter
1973
Hope and Lloyd, Exeter Cathe- dral, 12
Hope
12
Exeter Cathedral
Herbert Eustace Bishop and Edith K. Prideaux, The Building of the Cathedral Church of St. Peter in Exeter, Exeter, 1922
Bishop
The Building of the Cathedral Church of St. Peter in Exeter
1922
53
Bishop and Prideaux, The Building of Exeter
Bishop
The Building of Exeter
Freeman, Exeter Cathedral, 126
Freeman
126
Exeter Cathedral
Harvey, 228
228
55
"Resistance to Chartres," 1958, 5 1. Prior, 353
51
Resistance to Chartres
1958
57
Bony, Decorated Style, 1979, 19-zo.
Bony
19
Decorated Style
1979
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