During his long reign, the Kangxi emperor (r. 1661–1722) established many of the spaces and practices that defined the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1911) as both a continuation of the Chinese imperium and a new multiethnic and multicultural empire. The main site where the emperor himself carried out this endeavor was his summer palace: the Mountain Estate to Escape the Heat (Bishu Shanzhuang 避暑山莊), in the city of Rehe (today known as Chengde), in Hebei province approximately 150 miles northeast of the Forbidden City. Built in the early eighteenth century, the estate was rebuilt by Kangxi's grandson, the Qianlong emperor (r. 1736–95), whose later imprint has dominated both the...

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