Public housing in the United States has been a prime site of negotiation and struggle over racial identity. Integration by Design: Bertrand Goldberg, Stanley Tigerman, and Public Housing Architecture in Postwar Chicago examines a critical moment in the history of public housing, evaluating two projects built in Chicago's Black Belt: Bertrand Goldberg's Raymond Hilliard Homes (1966) and Stanley Tigerman's Woodlawn Gardens (1969). Marisa Angell Brown demonstrates how these projects reflect Goldberg's and Tigerman's thoughtful and empathetic responses to race, poverty, and spatial segregation, which resulted in two very different expressions of an architecture of black empowerment. The article contributes to a more nuanced history of public housing architecture and advances our understanding of the role of race in American architecture.

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