In the late 1950s and 1960s, before it became a norm to situate contemporary art in public spaces, Philip Johnson employed a model for relating contemporary architecture and art, proposing mutual enhancement based on juxtaposition and contrast over independence or integration. In Philip Johnson: The Whence and Whither of Art in Architecture, Cécile Whiting examines two examples of Johnson's use of contemporary art: the New York State Theater at Lincoln Center and the New York State Pavilion at the 1964–65 New York World's Fair. Whiting discusses the ways in which the commissioned art contrasted with the structures and orchestrated the movement of visitors. Johnson's use of painting and sculpture in and on these two buildings blurred lines—not only the line between art and architecture but also that between high art and popular commerce. As demonstrated in these works, modern art and architecture could engage in a rapprochement without effacing the creative tension between them.

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