Histories of American architectural education have usually focused on the advent of university departments of architecture shortly after the Civil War, but prior to that there were a number of institutions sponsoring or projecting architectural programs of various sorts that were attended by scores of future architects and builders. In Philadelphia these included schools of architectural drawing, lecture series on architecture, and schools of architecture in a fuller sense. Among the most prominent figures involved as instructors, lecturers, organizers, or students were Owen Biddle, William Strickland, John Haviland, T. U. Walter, G. Parker Cummings, and John McArthur, Jr. This paper surveys several of these programs, which complemented office training for many architects and designing builders of the nineteenth century.
Building a Discipline: Early Institutional Settings for Architectural Education in Philadelphia, 1804-1890
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Jeffrey A. Cohen; Building a Discipline: Early Institutional Settings for Architectural Education in Philadelphia, 1804-1890. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 1 June 1994; 53 (2): 139–183. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/990890
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