Thirty-five medieval bell towers, along with dozens of churches such as S. Clemente, S. Crisogono, S. Maria in Trastevere, and S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, survive as testimony to a boom in ecclesiastical construction in Rome during the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries. This article focuses on these bell towers, using computer database analysis of their architectural and decorative features to investigate the nature of building workshops in medieval Rome. A comparison of a number of variable features among the bell towers, such as masonry techniques, cornices, and decorative details, uncovered patterns of similarities and differences which may be attributed to workshop practices. Four distinct groups of bell towers are identified on the basis of these features, which I suggest are evidence of the existence of four workshops of brick masons active in bell tower construction in Rome between the early twelfth and the thirteenth centuries. Finally, the article addresses the question of specialization within medieval Rome's building industry and the circumstances behind a rapid decline around 1200 in bell tower building and the fate of the workshops that built them. I observe that by the early thirteenth century, certain prestigious architectural commissions, such as the cloisters at the Lateran and S. Paolo f.l.m., were not given to workshops of brick masons, but to marble workers.

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