During the years of Sir John Soane's practice, there were tremendous advancements in central heating methods. Stoves and fireplaces were no longer the primary means of heating spaces as hot air, steam, and hot water systems were introduced and gained currency. Soane designed expressive stoves, and fireplaces remained especially important to him because of their cultural associations, but he also readily recognized the possibilities of central systems and utilized them as they became available. The result is a compelling dialogue between his architecture and the diversity of available heating strategies. To understand fully Soane's manipulation of space or design intent in such major works as Lincoln's Inn Fields and Dulwich Picture Gallery, it is critical to understand his awareness of heating methods and his expertise in addressing the architectural opportunities they offered.

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