The role of Francesco di Giorgio (1439-1501) in developing the forms of artillery fortification marking the transition from late medieval defenses to the mature bastioned forts of the 16th century is becoming clearer as additional research has enhanced our knowledge of the chronology of his interventions, the maturation of design elements, and the interlocking personal, institutional, and political factors in his work for the Aragonese Kingdom of Naples. These efforts by Francesco di Giorgio and his associates focused on Naples, Otranto, Gallipoli, Taranto, Manfredonia, Monte Sant'Angelo, Reggio Calabria, Ortona, Matera, and Brindisi. Archival sources, investigation of the sites, and surviving graphic materials contribute substantially to identifying this "school" of military architects and the evolution of design brought about by the technological challenge of gunpowder, firearms, and siege artillery.

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