Each of the four cities considered in this study-Philadelphia, Gerasa, Bostra, and Philippopolis-presents its own individual urban growth and development. The specific planning of each city and the forces that formed their different urban natures are addressed. Particular stress is placed on the original planning solutions put to use within them, compared to the traditional forms then dominant. By outlining the urban architectural factors these cities had in common, it can be seen that the cities still embody architectural forms similar to one another, despite developmental, cultural, and historical differences.

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