ENDNOTES

1

Um Hashem, interview by author, 6 March 2013, ‘Ayn al-Hilwa camp, Lebanon.

2

Shoshona Felman and Dori Laub's Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis and History (New York: Routledge, 1992) was based on their experience teaching the Holocaust in university and on clinical work with Holocaust survivors. Cathy Caruth's Trauma: Explorations in Memory (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995) and Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996) brought literature together with clinical studies to stimulate thinking about historical traumas such as the Holocaust.

3

Didier Fassin, Humanitarian Reason: A Moral History of the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012), p. 6.

4

Arthur Kleinman, Veena Das, and Margaret Lock, eds., Social Suffering (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997), iv.

5

Kleinman et al., Social Suffering, xi.

6

Veena Das and Arthur Kleinman “Introduction” in Remaking a World: Violence, Social Suffering, and Recovery, ed. Veena Das et al. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001), p. 2.

7

Das and Kleinman, “Introduction,” p. 2.

8

Das and Kleinman, “Introduction,” p. 3.

9

An example of the aesthetic approach initiated by Caruth is Jonathan Crewe, Leo Spitzer, eds., Acts of Memory: Cultural Recall in the Present (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1999).

10

The medical anthropological approach is exemplified by Mary-Jo Delvecchio Good, Sandra Teresa Hyde, Sarah Pinto, Byron J. Good, eds., Postcolonial Disorders (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2008).

11

Kleinman et al., Social Suffering, xi.

12

Kleinman et al., Social Suffering, xi.

13

Johannes Fabian, Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes its Object (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983).

14

Veena Das, Arthur Kleinman, Mamphela Ramphele, Pamela Reynolds, eds., Violence and Subjectivity (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000), p. 1 (my italics).

15

In its contemporary form, colonialism depends on control over technology, time and space, and labels and meanings rather than over territory, and is reproduced ideologically as well as militarily, as in Israeli suppression of the Palestinians and U.S. attacks against Afghanistan and Iraq. See Derek Gregory, The Colonial Present (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p. 28.

16

Stephanie Latte Abdallah “La part des absents en creux des réfugiés palestiniens” in Images aux frontières: représentations et constructions sociales et politiques: Palestine, Jordanie 1948–2000. (Beirut: Institut francais du Proche-Orient, 2005).

17

In Britain and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948–51 (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1988), Ilan Pappe shows how British support for the Greater Jordan idea in 1947–48 dissolved Palestinian “peoplehood” and rights to a state, and how the UK and U.S. jointly “economized” the refugee problem (pp. 11–16, 124–5).

18

Carol B. Bardenstein, “Trees, Forests, and the Shaping of Palestinian and Israeli Collective Memory,” Acts of Memory, ed. Crewe et al. (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1999), p. 160.

19

Roberta J. Apfel and Bennett Simon, “Mitigating Discontents with Children in War: An Ongoing Psychoanalytic Inquiry,” in Cultures Under Siege, ed. Antonius Robben et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2000).

20

Eventually published as The Road to Martyrs' Square (Oxford University Press 2005), this “study” is described by Lori Allen as “an extended anti-Palestinian rant dressed up as colorful travelogue written in the style of a bad thriller.” Lori Allen, “Suicide as Political Violence,” review of The Road to Martyrs' Square: A Journey into the World of the Suicide Bomber, by Anne-Marie Oliver and Paul F. Steinberg, Journal of Palestine Studies 35, no. 2, p. 113.

21

Mary-Jo Delvecchio Good, et al., Postcolonial Disorders (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2008).

22

Michael M. J. Fischer, “To Live with What Would Otherwise be Unendurable, II,” in Postcolonial Disorders, ed. Good et al. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2008), pp. 260–261.

23

Scholars such as Salman Abu Sitta would contest this point on the grounds that, first, the Nakba was not limited to 1948 but extended from 1947 to 1956, and second, that many massacres carried out during 1948 have still not been counted into the death toll.

24

Gilbert Achcar, The Arabs and the Holocaust: the Arab-Israeli War of Narratives (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2010), pp. 31–32.

25

This was in the context of the Suez War, when the UK, France, and Israel attacked Egypt after Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal.

26

This was in 2002 at the height of the second intifada.

27

Joe Sacco, Footnotes in Gaza: A Graphic Novel (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000), xi.

28

Lila Abu-Lughod and Ahmad H. Sa'di, “Introduction,” in Nakba: Palestine, 1948, and the Claims of Memory, Sa'di and Abu-Lughod, eds. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), p. 11.

29

David Morris, “About Suffering: Voice, Genre, and Moral Community,” in Social Suffering, ed. Kleinman et al. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997).

30

Morris, “About Suffering,” p. 25. (my italics)

31

Morris, “About Suffering,” p. 39.

32

Morris, “About Suffering,” p. 40.

33

Judith Butler, Frames of War: When is Life Grievable? (London: Verso, 2009), p. 24.

34

Norman Daniel, Islam and the West: The Making of an Image (Edinburgh: Cambridge University Press, 1960) p. 192.

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