In the near 20 years since the Oslo peace process began, Palestinians have suffered losses—socially, economically and politically—arguably not seen since 1948. This altered reality has, in recent years, been shaped by critical paradigm shifts in the way the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is understood and addressed. These shifts, particularly with regard to international acceptance of Palestine's territorial fragmentation, the imperative of ending Israel's occupation, the de facto annexation of West Bank lands to Israel, and the transformation of Palestinians into a humanitarian issue—have redefined the way the world views the conflict, diminishing the possibility of a political resolution.

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