The author advocates a more unified Western response to the peace process. However, since the Gulf War both Europe and the United States have gone their own mutually exclusive ways, the United States with the Madrid/post-Oslo process, Europe with the twenty-seven-nation Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Agreements signed in Barcelona in 1995. This is bad for the peace process and Western relations and ignores the importance of Western cooperation in meeting future economic and political conflicts in the Mediterranean area.

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