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Beat-upbeat ratio (BUR) and swing percentage for a triplet subdivision, whe...
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 1. Beat-upbeat ratio (BUR) and swing percentage for a triplet subdivision, where the first duration is interpreted as twice as long as the second. The BUR is 2 because the onbeat subdivision is twice as long as the upbeat subdivision that follows it, thus occupying two thirds, or 66.67% of... More
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Two excerpts of LL Cool J’s verse from “Flava in Ya Ear” (Craig Mack et al....
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 2. Two excerpts of LL Cool J’s verse from “Flava in Ya Ear” (Craig Mack et al., 1994). Swing measurements are shown as BURs and percentages. Underlines indicate lexical stresses in multisyllabic lyrics. Pitch frequencies correspond to the syllable directly below them. The frequencies shown... More
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Two excerpts from “Gz and Hustlas” (Snoop Dogg, 1993). The top excerpt outl...
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 3. Two excerpts from “Gz and Hustlas” (Snoop Dogg, 1993). The top excerpt outlines the basic four-measure loop of the song’s beat, highlighting the swung timing at the sixteenth-note level. Though the BUR values here are notated next to the drum part, they characterize both the drum and pi... More
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Excerpt from the first verse of “212” (Azealia Banks, 2012). The BUR indica...
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 4. Excerpt from the first verse of “212” (Azealia Banks, 2012). The BUR indicated below the staff models the duration of the on-beat kick drum and the snare hit on the fourth sixteenth. If these attacks were quantized as written, the BUR would be 3. Its value above 4 indicates that the sna... More
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Lag timing of line-initiating syllables in the first verse of “Come Back Ba...
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 5. Lag timing of line-initiating syllables in the first verse of “Come Back Baby” (Pusha T, 2018). The first syllable of each line of lyrics sounds against a snare backbeat on beats two and four of each measure. More
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Excerpt from Snoop Dogg’s verse in “Pain” (De La Soul, 2016). Syllables box...
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 6. Excerpt from Snoop Dogg’s verse in “Pain” (De La Soul, 2016). Syllables boxed in red are graphically lagged according to their measured lag timings, which appear below the staff. More
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Excerpt from “Ladies First” (Queen Latifah, 2016).
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 7. Excerpt from “Ladies First” (Queen Latifah, 2016). More
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Conversational flow timing spectrum.
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 8. Conversational flow timing spectrum. More
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The first four phrases (0:49–1:01) of the first verse of “Stan” (Eminem, 20...
Published: 01 March 2022
Example 9. The first four phrases (0:49–1:01) of the first verse of “Stan” (Eminem, 2000). The vertical (y) axis represents the duration of each syllable in the order that Eminem raps them. Where there is an audible space between Eminem’s lyrics, it is indicated as such. More
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Lawrence Welk on the set of  The Lawrence Welk Show  in 1957. (Allan Grant/...
Published: 01 March 2022
Figure 1. Lawrence Welk on the set of The Lawrence Welk Show in 1957. (Allan Grant/The LIFE Picture Collection/Shutterstock) More
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Welk dances with Tanya Falan as the orchestra plays under the grand Geritol...
Published: 01 March 2022
Figure 2. Welk dances with Tanya Falan as the orchestra plays under the grand Geritol sign. (ABC Photo Archives/Walt Disney Television/Getty Images) More
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Champagne Lady Norma Zimmer. (ABC Photo Archives/Walt Disney Television/Get...
Published: 01 March 2022
Figure 3. Champagne Lady Norma Zimmer. (ABC Photo Archives/Walt Disney Television/Getty Images) More