[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
W. E. Ward, "Music in the Gold Coast," Gold Coast Review III (1927), 199-223
Ward
199
III
Gold Coast Review
1927
Erich von Hornbostel, in "African Negro Mu- sic," Africa I (1928), 30-6210.2307/1155862
30
"Some Notes on a Theory of Rhythm Ad- vanced by Erich von Hornbostel," African Music I (1955), 12-20
12
I
African Music
1955
Richard Waterman, " 'Hot' Rhythm in Negro Music," Journal of the American Musicological Society I (1948), 24-3710.2307/829662
24
A. M. Jones, Studies in African Music, 2 vols. (London, 1959)
Jones
Studies in African Music
1959
A. M. Jones, "African Rhythm," Africa XXIV (1954), 26-4710.2307/1156732
26
S. D. Cudjoe, "The Techniques of Ewe Drumming and the Social Importance of Music in Africa," Phylon XIV (1953), 280-9110.2307/271469
280
David Locke, "Principles of Off-beat Tim- ing and Cross-Rhythm in Southern Ewe Dance Drumming," Ethnomusicology XXVI (1982), 217-4610.2307/851524
217
James Koetting, "Analysis and Notation of West African Drum Ensemble Music," Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology I (1970), 115-46
Koetting
115
I
Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology
1970
Hewitt Pantaleoni, "Toward Understanding the Play of Atsimevu in Atsia," African Music V (1972), 64-84
Pantaleoni
64
V
African Music
1972
"The Constituting Features of Central African Rhythmic Systems: A Tentative Typology," The World of Music XV (1984), 51-64
51
XV
The World of Music
1984
"Structuration du temps dans les musiques d'Afriques Centrale: pe- riodicité, metre, rhythmique et polyrhythmie," Revue de musicologie LXX (1984), 5-3610.2307/928652
5
"African Musical Rhythm and Concepts of Time-Reckoning," in Thomas Noblitt (Ed.), Music East and West: Essays in Honor of Walter Kaufmann (New York, 1981)
Noblitt
African Musical Rhythm and Concepts of Time-reckoning
Music East and West: Essays in Honor of Walter Kaufmann
1981
Gerhard Ku- bik, "Emica del ritmo musicale africano," Culture musicali: Quaderni di ethnomusicologia XI (1983), 47-92
Kubik
47
XI
Culture Musicali: Quaderni Di Ethnomusicologia
1983
Robert Kauffman, "African Rhythm: a Reassessment," Ethnomusicology XXIV (1980), 393-41510.2307/851150
393
V. Kofi Agawu, " 'Gi Dunu,' 'Nyekpadudo,' and the Study of West African Rhythm," Ethnomusicology XXX (1986), 64-8310.2307/851830
64
John Miller Chernoff, African Rhythm and African Sensibility (Chicago, 1979)
Chernoff
African Rhythm and African Sensibility
1979
Afri- can Music in Ghana (Evanston, 1962), pp. 64-93
64
African Music in Ghana
1962
The Music of Africa (New York, 1974), pp. 125-38 and 169-74
125
The Music of Africa
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2
Thomas E. Bowdich, Mission from Cape Coast to Ashantee (London, 1819), pp. 278-81
Bowdich
278
Mission From Cape Coast to Ashantee
1819
J. H. Nketia, Ethnomusicology in Ghana (Accra, 1970), pp. 12-13
Nketia
12
Ethnomusicology in Ghana
1970
3
Richard A. Freeman, Travels and Life in Ashanti and Jaman (London, 1898), pp. 257- 61
Freeman
257
Travels and Life in Ashanti And jaman
1898
Nketia, Ethnomusicology, p. 13
13
4
Laura Boyle, Diary of a Colonial Officer's Wife (Oxford, 1968), p. 12.
Boyle
12
Diary of a Colonial Officer's Wife
1968
5
Richard Freeman, Travels, p. 261
Freeman
261
Travels
Nketia, Ethnomusicology, p. 13
13
6
Lieutenant-Colonel H. P. Northcott, Report on the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (London, 1899), p. 39
Northcott
39
Report on the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast
1899
Nketia, Ethnomusicology, p. 12
12
7
Alan P. Merriam, "Charac- teristics of African Music," Journal of the International Folk Music Council II (1959), 13-1910.2307/834848
13
Gilbert Rouget, "La Musique d'Afrique Noire," in Roland-Manuel (ed.), Histoire de la mu- sique I (Paris, 1960)
Rouget
La Musique D'afrique Noire
I
Histoire De La Musique
1960
Klaus Wachsmann, "Africa," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. S. Sadie, (London, 1980)
Wachsmann
Africa
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
1980
Atta Annan Mensah, "Music South of the Sahara," in Elizabeth May (ed.), Musics of Many Cultures (Berkeley, 1980)
Mensah
Music South of the Sahara
Musics of Many Cultures
1980
8
How Musical is Man? (Seattle, 1973)
How Musical is Man?
1973
"The Value of Music in Human Experience," Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council I (1971), 33-7110.2307/767634
33
Steven Feld, Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression (Philadelphia, 1982)
Feld
Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression
1982
9
Arom, "The Constituting Features," p. 51.
51
10
Jones, "African Rhythm," p. 84.
84
11
Gilbert Rouget, "Tons de la langue en Gun (Dahomey) et tons du tambour," Revue de musicologie L (1964), 3-29
Rouget
3
Revue De Musicologie L
1964
Nketia, The Music of Africa, pp. 180-83
180
12
Nissio Fiagbedzi, "The Music of the Anlo," (Ph.D. diss., University of Cal- ifornia at Los Angeles, 1977)
14
Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield, 1981)
Webster
New Collegiate Dictionary
1981
Encyclopædia Brittanica, 15th edition (Chicago, 1974)15
Encyclopædia Brittanica
1974
Greenberg, The Languages of Africa (Bloomington, 1963)
Greenberg
The Languages of Africa
1963
K. L. Pike, Tone Languages (Ann Arbor, 1948)
Pike
Tone Languages
1948
16
Nketia, The Music of Africa, pp. 184. 85
184
17
Archiv für vergleichende Phonetik (Berlin, 1942)
Archiv Fur Vergleichende Phonetik
1942
Studies in African Music, pp. 230-51
230
Paul Richards, "A Quantitative Analysis of the Relationship between Language Tone and Melody in a Hausa Song," Afri- can Language Studies XIII (1972), 137-61
Richards
137
XIII
African Language Studies
1972
Nissio Fiagbedzi, Religious Music Traditions in Africa: A Critical Evaluation of Contemporary Problems and Challenges (Accra, 1979)
Fiagbedzi
Religious Music Traditions in Africa: a Critical Evaluation of Contemporary Problems and Challenges
1979
William R. Leben, "On the Correspondence between Linguistic Tone and Musical Melody," Pro- ceedings of the Berkeley Linguistic Society (1983), pp. 148-54
Leben
148
Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistic Society
1983
V. Kofi Agawu, "The Im- pact of Language on Musical Composition in Ghana: An Introduction to the Musical Style of Ephraim Amu," Ethnomusicology XXVIII (1984), 39-5310.2307/851431
39
18
David Locke with Godwin Agbeli, "Drum Language in Adzogbo," The Black Perspective in Music IX (1981), 25-5010.2307/1214103
25
David Locke, "Principles of Offbeat Timing"
Nketia, The Music of Africa
J. H. Nketia, Pre- paratory Exercises in African Rhythm (Legon, 1963)
Nketia
Preparatory Exercises in African Rhythm
1963
19
Agawu, "The Impact of Language on Musical Composition in Ghana," pp. 43-45
Agawu
43
The Impact of Language on Musical Composition in Ghana
20
Nketia, African Music in Ghana, p. 64
64
21
Agawu, "The Impact of Lan- guage on Musical Composition in Ghana," pp. 49-50
Agawu
49
The Impact of Language on Musical Composition in Ghana
E. Y. Egble- wogbe, Games and Songs as Education Media (Accra, 1975)
Egblewogbe
Games and Songs as Education Media
1975
22
Both Egblewogbe, Games and Songs as Education Media
Egblewogbe
Games and Songs as Education Media
Cudjoe, "The Techniques of Ewe Drumming"
23
Nketia, Folk Songs of Ghana (Le- gon, 1963), pp. 16-65
Nketia
16
Folk Songs of Ghana
1963
24
Hornbostel, "African Negro Music," p. 52.
Hornbostel
52
African Negro Music
25
Nketia, Drumming in the Akan Communities of Ghana (London, 1963)
Nketia
Drumming in the Akan Communities of Ghana
1963
26
John Car- rington, Talking Drums ofAfrica (London, 1949)
Carrington
Talking drums Ofafrica
1949
Georg Herzog, "Drum Signalling in a West African Tribe," Word I (1945), 217-38
Herzog
217
I
Word
1945
27
note 26
"African Talking Drums and Oral Noetics," in Inter- faces of the Word: Studies in the Evolution of Consciousness and Culture (Ithaca, 1977), pp. 92- 120
African Talking Drums and Oral Noetics
92
Interfaces of the Word: Studies in the Evolution of Consciousness and Culture
1977
28
Chernoff, African Rhythm, pp. 83-87
Chernoff
83
African Rhythm
David Locke, "The Music of Atsiagbeko," (Ph.D. diss., Wesleyan Univer- sity, 1978)
Locke, "Atsiagbekō: The Polyrhythmic Texture," Sonus IV (1983), 16-38
Locke
16
IV
Sonus
1983
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