Augustine's appraisal of music's moral value in Confessions, as selectively abbreviated by Isidore of Seville, provides a conceptual framework for understanding early medieval Iberian musical values. Augustine advocates a devotional focus primarily on text, expressing anxiety about elaborate liturgical music. For Isidore, by contrast, diverse melody leads both faithful and unfaithful toward a transcendent anticipation of heaven, beyond reason-based concentration on text. In this article I test the hypothesis that Isidore's musical values shaped the extant Old Hispanic chant texts and melodies, offering a new appraisal of the way Old Hispanic musical values and practice relate. Examples are drawn from Old Hispanic (“Mozarabic”) chant, whose texts (preserved before 732) are closer to the late antique context than any other Western liturgy. Old Hispanic melodies are preserved in unpitched notation ca. 900. The methodology developed here has the potential to be applied to other ritual traditions.

Some cultures have implicit musical values, latent within their musical practices and/or products. In other cultures musical values are explicitly theorized about, although the relationship between those values and musical practice can range from very close to completely disjunct. The present article explores the parallels between musical values and practice in early medieval Iberia. There was a period of intense intellectual and religious activity after the Visigothic kings converted to Nicene Christianity in 589. Evidence of this activity is preserved in the writings of (among others) the celebrated Iberian encyclopedist Isidore of Seville (ca. 570–636). Isidore's musical values constitute a selective and critical reading of late antique theology, and continued to be influential for centuries. He contributed to the creation of the Old Hispanic (“Mozarabic”) chant repertory, whose texts are preserved in a manuscript (OV) dated before 732, less than a hundred years after his death.1 The chant melodies are preserved in unpitched notation ca. 900. Here, I test the hypothesis that Isidore's musical values shaped the extant Old Hispanic chant texts and melodies. This leads to a new appraisal of the way musical values and practice relate in one of the oldest liturgical chant traditions in Western Europe.

There is much scholarship on late antique “musica,” the speculative art of Christianized cosmic harmony that expresses the relationship between God and man in numerical terms.2 Similarly, the evidence pertaining to late antique Christian musical practice has been much discussed.3 Considered in this late antique context, the Confessions of Augustine of Hippo (354–430) is unusual in engaging explicitly with the moral value of different musical styles within worship. While these ideas about music's moral value are well known, they are rarely compared with surviving music, chiefly because of the chronological distance between Augustine's lifetime and the earliest extant Franco-Roman liturgical texts (late eighth century) and melodies (ninth century).

In two ways, Iberia provides a bridge between this late antique thought and early medieval chant. First, Augustine's theology was filtered through the interpretative lens of Isidore of Seville, underpinning much of Isidore's music commentary.4 Secondly, the Old Hispanic liturgy was in use in the Iberian peninsula until its suppression in the late eleventh century. Its texts date back to the early eighth century at the latest; many of them were likely compiled during the seventh century. Indeed, three chants were directly attributed to Isidore, one by Elipandus of Toledo (eighth century) and two in L8 (first third of the tenth century).5 It is certainly plausible that Isidore himself participated in compiling the Old Hispanic liturgy, since he played a central role in the Iberian Councils that debated its shape.6 Further, Isidore's writings were a mainstay of Iberian culture through the period in which the liturgy was practiced.7 Here, then, I outline Isidore's musical values, before exploring the interpretative landscape of the chant texts in combination with their melodic characteristics. This leads to a new appraisal of the way Isidore's musical values may have shaped Old Hispanic musical practice.

Augustine and Isidore: Theologies of Sounded Music

One discursive thread in Augustine's Confessions (and a departure point for Isidore) explores how music points toward and enacts the relationship between man and God. This might be termed a “music theology.”8 The jubilus is a particularly well-known music-theological topos transferred from late antique thought to the Middle Ages.9 For Augustine and others the jubilus is a textless vocalization that happens when, focused on God, someone feels such joy that their praise transcends words.10 Many commentators, including Gregory the Great and seventh-century Iberian writers, mention jubilation as a generic “praise” word.11 While on some occasions Augustine describes the jubilus specifically as song,12 Isidore does not, although his definition of it selectively paraphrases Augustine's (see Table 1).13 Isidore's portrayal of the offertory chant as jubilatory, however, shows that he too understood the jubilus as sung.14 It is unsurprising that modern scholars have interpreted the jubilus, manifesting devotion beyond words, as being synonymous with melisma, at least from the Carolingian period onward.15 

Table 1

Shared vocabulary in Augustine's and Isidore's descriptions of jubilation

Augustine, Enarrationes in psalmos 99.4 Qui iubilat, non uerba dicit, sed sonus quidam est laetitiae sine uerbis; uox est enim [1] animi diffusi laetitia, quantum [2] potest, exprimentis affectum, non sensum comprehendentis. [3] Gaudens homo in exsultatione sua, ex uerbis quibusdam quae non possunt dici et intellegi, [4] erumpit in uocem quamdam exsultationis sine uerbis. One who jubilates does not speak words, but it is rather a sort of sound of joy without words, since it is the voice of a soul poured out in joy and expressing, as best it can, the feeling, though not grasping the sense. A man delighting in his joy, from some words which cannot be spoken or understood, bursts forth in a certain voice of exultation without words.a 
Isidore, De differentiis 1.329 Ubi vero non [2] potest quisque conceptum [3] gaudium verbis adnuntiare, sed ipsa [1] animi diffusi laetitia [4] in voce quadam exultationis erumpit, jubilatio est. When someone cannot proclaim, with words, the joy he has received, but the happiness of his effusive mind bursts forth with a sound of exultation, it is jubilation.b 
Augustine, Enarrationes in psalmos 99.4 Qui iubilat, non uerba dicit, sed sonus quidam est laetitiae sine uerbis; uox est enim [1] animi diffusi laetitia, quantum [2] potest, exprimentis affectum, non sensum comprehendentis. [3] Gaudens homo in exsultatione sua, ex uerbis quibusdam quae non possunt dici et intellegi, [4] erumpit in uocem quamdam exsultationis sine uerbis. One who jubilates does not speak words, but it is rather a sort of sound of joy without words, since it is the voice of a soul poured out in joy and expressing, as best it can, the feeling, though not grasping the sense. A man delighting in his joy, from some words which cannot be spoken or understood, bursts forth in a certain voice of exultation without words.a 
Isidore, De differentiis 1.329 Ubi vero non [2] potest quisque conceptum [3] gaudium verbis adnuntiare, sed ipsa [1] animi diffusi laetitia [4] in voce quadam exultationis erumpit, jubilatio est. When someone cannot proclaim, with words, the joy he has received, but the happiness of his effusive mind bursts forth with a sound of exultation, it is jubilation.b 
a

McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 158.

b

Isidore of Seville, Isidore of Seville's Synonyms, 146–47.

Descriptions of jubilatio are universally positive. This contrasts strikingly with Augustine's sustained discussion in Confessions 10.33 of music's role in conversion (see Table 2). Book 10 of Confessions is about the potential for experiences based in each of the five senses to distract us from God, a concern shared by many late antique writers.16 In Confessions 10.33, as in other Christian writings, the hearer's intentions are of paramount importance when judging sacred music's moral value.17 Further, rational thought must lead, keeping physical delight subordinate.18 The corollary of this, made explicit three times in Confessions 10.33, is that one should focus on the religious text presented through melody, not on the melody per se. Although Augustine acknowledges the devotional value of elaborate singing when well-intentioned hearers focus on the words, he repeatedly articulates anxiety about music's tendency to claim the listener's attention. Although no Visigothic copies of Confessions survive, it was certainly known in early medieval Iberia, since it was extensively mined by Isidore of Seville.19 As illustrated in Table 2, much of Isidore's discussion of music's role in worship in De ecclesiasticis officiis paraphrases Confessions 10.33.20 

Table 2

Shared vocabulary in Augustine's Confessions and Isidore's De ecclesiasticis officiis

Augustine, Confessionum 10.33.49–50 Nunc in sonis, quos animant eloquia tua, [1] cum suaui et artificiosa uoce cantantur, fateor, aliquantulum adquiesco, non quidem ut haeream, sed ut surgam, cum uolo. Attamen cum ipsis sententiis quibus uiuunt ut admittantur ad me, quaerunt in corde meo nonnullius dignitatis locum, et uix eis praebeo congruentem. Aliquando enim plus mihi uideor honoris eis tribuere, quam decet, dum [2] ipsis sanctis dictis religiosius et ardentius sentio moueri animos nostros in flammam pietatis, cum ita cantantur, quam si non ita cantarentur, et omnes affectus spiritus nostri pro sui diuersitate habere proprios modos in uoce atque cantu, quorum nescio qua occulta familiaritate excitentur. Sed delectatio carnis meae, cui mentem eneruandam non oportet dari, saepe me fallit, dum rationi sensus non ita comitatur, ut patienter sit posterior, sed tantum, quia propter illam meruit admitti, etiam praecurrere ac ducere conatur. Ita in his pecco non sentiens et postea sentio. As things now stand, I confess that I have some sense of restful contentment in the sounds which your words animate, when they are sung by an attractive and technically skilled voice. Not that I am riveted by them, for I can rise up and go when I wish. Nevertheless, on being combined with the thoughts that give them life, they demand in my heart some position of honor, and I have difficulty in finding what is appropriate to offer them. Sometimes I seem to myself to give them more honor than is fitting. I feel that when the sacred words are chanted in this way, our souls are moved more religiously and more ardently toward the flame of piety than if they are not sung in this way. All the diverse emotions of our spirit have their various modes in voice and chant appropriate in each case, and are stirred by a mysterious inner kinship. But my physical delight, which has to be checked from enervating the mind, often deceives me when sense does not accompany reason in such a way as to accept a subordinate place. It tries to be first and to be in the leading role, though it deserves to be allowed only as secondary to reason. So in these matters I sin unawares, and only afterwards become aware of it. 
 Aliquando autem hanc ipsam fallaciam immoderatius cauens erro nimia seueritate, sed ualde interdum, ut melos omne cantilenarum [3] suauium, quibus Dauidicum psalterium frequentatur, ab auribus meis remoueri uelim atque ipsius ecclesiae, tutiusque mihi uidetur, quod de Alexandrino episcopo Athanasio saepe mihi dictum commemini, qui tam [4] modico flexu uocis faciebat sonare lectorem psalmi, ut pronuntianti uicinior esset quam canenti. Verum tamen cum reminiscor lacrimas meas, quas fudi ad cantus ecclesiae in primordiis recuperatae fidei meae, et nunc ipsum cum [5] moueor non cantu, sed rebus quae cantantur, cum liquida uoce et conuenientissima modulatione cantantur, magnam instituti huius utilitatem rursus agnosco. Sometimes, however, by taking excessive safeguards against being led astray, I err on the side of too much severity. I have sometimes gone so far as to wish to banish all the melody of sweet tunes commonly used for David's psalter from my ears and from the church as well. But I think a safer course one which I remember being often told of bishop Athanasius of Alexandria. He used to make the reader of the psalm intone with so moderate an inflection of the voice that he was nearer to reciting than to singing. Nevertheless, when I remember the tears which I poured out at the time when I was first recovering my faith, and that now I am moved not by the chant but by the words being sung, when they are sung with a flowing voice and entirely appropriate modulation, then again I recognize the great utility of music in worship. 
 Ita fluctuo inter periculum uoluptatis et experimentum salubritatis magisque adducor non quidem inretractabilem sententiam proferens [6] cantandi consuetudinem approbare in ecclesia, ut per oblectamenta aurium infirmior animus in affectum pietatis adsurgat. Tamen, cum mihi accidit, ut me amplius cantus quam res, quae canitur, moueat, poenaliter me peccare Confiteor et tunc mallem non audire cantantem. Thus I fluctuate between the danger of pleasure and the experience of the beneficent effect, and I am more led to put forward the opinion (not as an irrevocable view) that the custom of singing in church is to be approved, so that through the delights of the ear the weaker mind may rise up and be moved to the emotion of piety. Yet when it happens to me that the music moves me more than the subject of the song, I confess myself to commit a sin deserving punishment, and then I would prefer not to have heard the singer.a 
Isidore, De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.5.2. Primitiua autem ecclesia ita psallebat ut [4] modico flexu uocis faceret resonare psallentem, ita ut pronuntianti uicinior esset quam canenti. Propter carnales autem in ecclesia, non propter spiritales, [6.1] consuetudo cantandi est instituta ut, quia uerbis non compunguntur, [3] suauitate modulaminis [5] moueantur. Sic namque et beatissimus Augustinus in libris Confessionum suarum [6.2] consuetudinem canendi adprobat in ecclesia, “ut per oblectamenta, inquid, aurium infirmior animus ad affectum pietatis exsurgat.” Nam in [2] ipsis sanctis dictis religiosius et ardentius mouentur animi nostri ad flammam pietatis cum cantatur quam si non cantetur. Omnes enim affectus nostri pro sonorum diuersitate uel nouitate nescio qua occulta familiaritate excitantur magis [1] cum suaui et artificiosa uoce cantaturThe primitive church, however, sang the psalms so that the reader of the psalm intoned so moderate an inflection of the voice, that he was nearer to reciting than to singing. However, for the carnal ones, not for the spiritual ones, the custom of singing was instituted in the church, in order that those whom the words do not inspire with devotion would be moved by the attractive modulations. Thus, in fact, the blessed Augustine in his book of Confessions “approved the custom of singing in church, so that through the delights of the ear the weaker mind may rise up and be moved to the emotion of piety.” For our souls are more religiously and ardently moved toward the flame of piety through these sacred words when there is singing than when there is not. All our emotions are more excited through some mysterious kinship to the diversity or novelty of sounds when [something] is sung by an attractive and technically skilled voice. 
Augustine, Confessionum 10.33.49–50 Nunc in sonis, quos animant eloquia tua, [1] cum suaui et artificiosa uoce cantantur, fateor, aliquantulum adquiesco, non quidem ut haeream, sed ut surgam, cum uolo. Attamen cum ipsis sententiis quibus uiuunt ut admittantur ad me, quaerunt in corde meo nonnullius dignitatis locum, et uix eis praebeo congruentem. Aliquando enim plus mihi uideor honoris eis tribuere, quam decet, dum [2] ipsis sanctis dictis religiosius et ardentius sentio moueri animos nostros in flammam pietatis, cum ita cantantur, quam si non ita cantarentur, et omnes affectus spiritus nostri pro sui diuersitate habere proprios modos in uoce atque cantu, quorum nescio qua occulta familiaritate excitentur. Sed delectatio carnis meae, cui mentem eneruandam non oportet dari, saepe me fallit, dum rationi sensus non ita comitatur, ut patienter sit posterior, sed tantum, quia propter illam meruit admitti, etiam praecurrere ac ducere conatur. Ita in his pecco non sentiens et postea sentio. As things now stand, I confess that I have some sense of restful contentment in the sounds which your words animate, when they are sung by an attractive and technically skilled voice. Not that I am riveted by them, for I can rise up and go when I wish. Nevertheless, on being combined with the thoughts that give them life, they demand in my heart some position of honor, and I have difficulty in finding what is appropriate to offer them. Sometimes I seem to myself to give them more honor than is fitting. I feel that when the sacred words are chanted in this way, our souls are moved more religiously and more ardently toward the flame of piety than if they are not sung in this way. All the diverse emotions of our spirit have their various modes in voice and chant appropriate in each case, and are stirred by a mysterious inner kinship. But my physical delight, which has to be checked from enervating the mind, often deceives me when sense does not accompany reason in such a way as to accept a subordinate place. It tries to be first and to be in the leading role, though it deserves to be allowed only as secondary to reason. So in these matters I sin unawares, and only afterwards become aware of it. 
 Aliquando autem hanc ipsam fallaciam immoderatius cauens erro nimia seueritate, sed ualde interdum, ut melos omne cantilenarum [3] suauium, quibus Dauidicum psalterium frequentatur, ab auribus meis remoueri uelim atque ipsius ecclesiae, tutiusque mihi uidetur, quod de Alexandrino episcopo Athanasio saepe mihi dictum commemini, qui tam [4] modico flexu uocis faciebat sonare lectorem psalmi, ut pronuntianti uicinior esset quam canenti. Verum tamen cum reminiscor lacrimas meas, quas fudi ad cantus ecclesiae in primordiis recuperatae fidei meae, et nunc ipsum cum [5] moueor non cantu, sed rebus quae cantantur, cum liquida uoce et conuenientissima modulatione cantantur, magnam instituti huius utilitatem rursus agnosco. Sometimes, however, by taking excessive safeguards against being led astray, I err on the side of too much severity. I have sometimes gone so far as to wish to banish all the melody of sweet tunes commonly used for David's psalter from my ears and from the church as well. But I think a safer course one which I remember being often told of bishop Athanasius of Alexandria. He used to make the reader of the psalm intone with so moderate an inflection of the voice that he was nearer to reciting than to singing. Nevertheless, when I remember the tears which I poured out at the time when I was first recovering my faith, and that now I am moved not by the chant but by the words being sung, when they are sung with a flowing voice and entirely appropriate modulation, then again I recognize the great utility of music in worship. 
 Ita fluctuo inter periculum uoluptatis et experimentum salubritatis magisque adducor non quidem inretractabilem sententiam proferens [6] cantandi consuetudinem approbare in ecclesia, ut per oblectamenta aurium infirmior animus in affectum pietatis adsurgat. Tamen, cum mihi accidit, ut me amplius cantus quam res, quae canitur, moueat, poenaliter me peccare Confiteor et tunc mallem non audire cantantem. Thus I fluctuate between the danger of pleasure and the experience of the beneficent effect, and I am more led to put forward the opinion (not as an irrevocable view) that the custom of singing in church is to be approved, so that through the delights of the ear the weaker mind may rise up and be moved to the emotion of piety. Yet when it happens to me that the music moves me more than the subject of the song, I confess myself to commit a sin deserving punishment, and then I would prefer not to have heard the singer.a 
Isidore, De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.5.2. Primitiua autem ecclesia ita psallebat ut [4] modico flexu uocis faceret resonare psallentem, ita ut pronuntianti uicinior esset quam canenti. Propter carnales autem in ecclesia, non propter spiritales, [6.1] consuetudo cantandi est instituta ut, quia uerbis non compunguntur, [3] suauitate modulaminis [5] moueantur. Sic namque et beatissimus Augustinus in libris Confessionum suarum [6.2] consuetudinem canendi adprobat in ecclesia, “ut per oblectamenta, inquid, aurium infirmior animus ad affectum pietatis exsurgat.” Nam in [2] ipsis sanctis dictis religiosius et ardentius mouentur animi nostri ad flammam pietatis cum cantatur quam si non cantetur. Omnes enim affectus nostri pro sonorum diuersitate uel nouitate nescio qua occulta familiaritate excitantur magis [1] cum suaui et artificiosa uoce cantaturThe primitive church, however, sang the psalms so that the reader of the psalm intoned so moderate an inflection of the voice, that he was nearer to reciting than to singing. However, for the carnal ones, not for the spiritual ones, the custom of singing was instituted in the church, in order that those whom the words do not inspire with devotion would be moved by the attractive modulations. Thus, in fact, the blessed Augustine in his book of Confessions “approved the custom of singing in church, so that through the delights of the ear the weaker mind may rise up and be moved to the emotion of piety.” For our souls are more religiously and ardently moved toward the flame of piety through these sacred words when there is singing than when there is not. All our emotions are more excited through some mysterious kinship to the diversity or novelty of sounds when [something] is sung by an attractive and technically skilled voice. 
a

Augustine, Confessions, 207–8, with revisions suggested by Gillian Clark.

Significantly, Isidore's quotation is selective. For Augustine, simple recitation has Bishop Athanasius's authority, and seems “a safer course” than elaborate melodies; for Isidore, such recitation is associated with the “primitive church,” without mention of its relative worth. Having approved singing in church, Augustine expresses concern about being moved more by melody than by textual meaning. Isidore quotes only Augustine's approval. Similarly, he quotes Augustine on sacred song's power to move people to piety, but omits his caveat about the enervating effects of physical delight.

This selective quotation may be contrasted with Agobard of Lyon's use of Confessions 10.33 in De correctione antiphonarii 14.21 Here, the quotation is literal and extensive, highlighting the distinctiveness of Isidore's treatment of Confessions.22 (Although born in Spain ca. 779, Agobard spent his adult life in the Carolingian cultural sphere.) While Isidore does not repeat Augustine's reservations about the use of music in worship, he does value concentration on liturgical text,23 and admonishes Christians to maintain focus on God while singing psalms and hymns. In Regula monachorum 5.5, for example, he states, “Monks who are working should either meditate or chant psalms, so that they make light their work with the delight of song and the words of God. … They must therefore work with their body and an intent fixed on God so that, with their hands enveloped in work, their mind is not distracted from God.”24 

Both Augustine and Isidore observe music's power to move the emotions, although they articulate it differently. For Augustine, diverse emotions are stirred by various modes of melody, and the emotive power of text increases when it is sung “in this way” (i.e., with an “attractive and technically skilled voice”; see Table 2). Isidore shifts the meaning significantly. First, he omits “in this way” (perhaps because the “attractive and technically skilled voice” comes later in his paraphrase), resulting in a binary assertion that sacred words with melody are more effective than those without melody for moving emotions. Secondly, Isidore values diverse and novel melody (Table 2), externalizing Augustine's “diverse emotions” into the purview of sound. This is also made explicit in his Regula monachorum 6.4: “During vigils it will be usual to recite, and during matins it will be the custom to chant and sing, so that in both ways the minds of the servants of God are exercised with the pleasure of diversity and are moved more ardently to the praise of God without boredom.”25 In Sententiae 3.7.32, immediately after quoting Augustine's prioritization of text over melody, Isidore describes music as having greater emotive power than text (see Table 3). Three ways in which music positively stirs the emotions are enumerated in his Etymologiae: a battle trumpet's rousing sound; music's ability to promote physical endurance; and its healing power.26 For Isidore, melody's diversity is key to this power. Further, Augustine notes the importance of fitting melody (“conuenientissima modulatio”) in liturgical song; the thrust of the sentence is utilitarian. Isidore's paraphrase in Sententiae rather concerns aesthetic value, emphasized through the synonymous pairing “dulcedo suavissima” (Table 3). Here, the salient quality of “modulatio” is its attractiveness rather than its functionality.

Table 3

Shared vocabulary in Augustine's Confessions and Isidore's Sententiae

Augustine, Confessionum 10.33.50 … et nunc ipsum cum moueor non cantu, sed rebus quae cantantur, cum liquida uoce et conuenientissima modulatione cantantur, magnam instituti huius utilitatem rursus agnosco. … and that now I am moved not by the chant but by the words being sung, when they are sung with a flowing voice and entirely fitting melody, then again I recognize the great utility of music in worship.a 
Isidore, Sententiae 3.7.32 Dum Christianum non vocis modulatio, sed tantum verba divina, quae ibi dicuntur debeant commovere, nescio quo tamen pacto modulatione canentis maior nascitur compunctio cordis. Multi enim repperiuntur qui, cantus suavitate commoti sua crimina plangunt, atque ex ea parte magis flectuntur ad lacrimas, ex qua psallentis insonuerit dulcedo suavissima. Although the Christian should be moved not by vocal melody but only by the divine words as it is said here [Confessions 10.33.50], nevertheless by I know not what means a singer's melody produces a greater compunction of the heart. For there are many who, once moved by the sweetness of song, bewail their sins and are all the more reduced to tears as soon as the most pleasant sweetness of the psalm singer sounds forth. 
Augustine, Confessionum 10.33.50 … et nunc ipsum cum moueor non cantu, sed rebus quae cantantur, cum liquida uoce et conuenientissima modulatione cantantur, magnam instituti huius utilitatem rursus agnosco. … and that now I am moved not by the chant but by the words being sung, when they are sung with a flowing voice and entirely fitting melody, then again I recognize the great utility of music in worship.a 
Isidore, Sententiae 3.7.32 Dum Christianum non vocis modulatio, sed tantum verba divina, quae ibi dicuntur debeant commovere, nescio quo tamen pacto modulatione canentis maior nascitur compunctio cordis. Multi enim repperiuntur qui, cantus suavitate commoti sua crimina plangunt, atque ex ea parte magis flectuntur ad lacrimas, ex qua psallentis insonuerit dulcedo suavissima. Although the Christian should be moved not by vocal melody but only by the divine words as it is said here [Confessions 10.33.50], nevertheless by I know not what means a singer's melody produces a greater compunction of the heart. For there are many who, once moved by the sweetness of song, bewail their sins and are all the more reduced to tears as soon as the most pleasant sweetness of the psalm singer sounds forth. 
a

Augustine, Confessions, 208.

How can we account for Isidore's enthusiastic embrace of diverse and attractive liturgical melody, and Augustine's more circumspect appraisal? There is ongoing tension in Augustine's thought between sounded music and music as Platonic ideal.27 Human perception of time passing is affected in complex ways by sounded music. Sometimes, temporal awareness fades into the background as musical participants become completely immersed in the present moment.28 This can result in an experience of transcendent bliss.29 Such immersion does not always occur, however. In grappling with human experience of time, Augustine discusses the way memory makes us aware of the past, and expectation makes us anticipate the future:

I am about to repeat a song [canticum] that I know. Before I begin, my expectation extends over the whole song. But, when I have begun, that much of the song which I carry away [decerpsero] into the past is extended into my memory. The life of this act of mine [vita huius actionis meae] is stretched in two ways [distenditur], into my memory, because of the words I have already said, and into my expectation, because of those I am about to say. But all this happens while my attention is present at hand [praesens tamen adest attentio mea]: the future is transferred [traicitur] into the memory through this [per quam (i.e., attentionem)] to become the past.30 

Constant distension—anticipation and remembering—in human minds distances humanity from God, who transcends time and place.31 During singing, participants can easily be distracted from the part of the song that is present at any one moment.32 At the same time, though, human ability instantaneously to apprehend the song as a unit (“my expectation extends over the whole song”) can offer a weak approximation of the divinely eternal perspective.33 Indeed, the following paragraph of Confessions refers to Christ as “mediator between you the One and us the many,” who will gather up Augustine “to follow the One, ‘forgetting the past’ and moving not towards those future things which are transitory but to ‘the things which are before’ me, not stretched out in distraction [distension] but extended in reach, not by being pulled apart but by concentration.”34 Sounded music figures in this passage primarily as an analogy with which to begin to make the theological point that Christ's metaphysical mediation enables humanity to transcend time.

Elsewhere Augustine describes sounded music as offering an experience of the divine in unity with the angels: sweet music draws the psalmist “through and up to the celestial dwelling itself”;35 and a similar idea is articulated in the passage quoted in Table 1. Paradoxically, however, heavenly music is not physically audible.36 Augustine's glimpse of the divine is marked precisely by transcendence beyond the five earthly senses:

When I love you, what do I love? It is not physical beauty nor temporal glory nor the brightness of light dear to earthly eyes, nor the sweet melodies of all kinds of songs, nor the gentle odour of flowers and ointments and perfumes, nor manna or honey, nor limbs welcoming the embraces of the flesh; it is not these I love when I love my God. Yet there is a light I love, and a food, and a kind of embrace when I love my God—a light, voice, odour, food, embrace of my inner man, where my soul is floodlit by light which space cannot contain, where there is sound that time cannot seize, where there is a perfume which no breeze disperses, where there is a taste for food no amount of eating can lessen, and where there is a bond of union that no satiety can part.37 

In Augustine's devotional ideal, the abstract realm of cosmic harmony is encountered beyond time and the physical senses. Thus, while sounded devotional melody has moral value on the journey toward perceiving the incorporeal,38 it still has potential to distract from God. Rather than wholeheartedly embracing elaborate liturgical music's power, then, Augustine aspires through concentrated text-based piety to neo-Platonic transcendence of the senses. Isidore's priorities are more pragmatic. Conversion was a live issue in the years after the Visigothic kings' rejection of Arianism (589),39 and this contextualizes Isidore's concern for those who are not spiritually inclined (see Tables 2 and 3). For Isidore, beautiful melody that arouses the emotions is a gateway to Christian spirituality, as long as it is congruent with the religious setting, regardless of whether or not the participants focus on the words.

Some of these ideas are present in the four prologues to L8 (fols. 2v–3r). Although probably copied in the tenth century, they were most likely composed in the eighth century, in response to the Adoptionist controversy.40 As well as defending the Old Hispanic liturgy, the prologues discuss liturgical song's power to move the emotions. As in Isidore's writing, the tone is pragmatic: the fourth prologue admonishes cantors to avoid excess and pride, and to maintain liturgical decorum.41 Prologues 2–3 touch on some of the general themes pertaining to liturgical song that have been explored above, notably jubilation (2 and 3), the alignment of voice and heart (3), and the uniting of humanity with angel choirs (2 and 3).42 In prologues 1–3 “dulce” and “suave” appear in close proximity (e.g., “diversa suavitatum modulatione” in prologue 1); this is reminiscent of Isidore, Sententiae 3.7.32 (see Table 3).

As we have seen, then, the musical values of Isidore and Augustine are closely related—indeed, Isidore's words are largely derived from Augustine's. But Isidore's process of brevitas—selective quotation and paraphrase—is not uncritical.43 Rather, it leads to a distinctive music theology in which elaborate liturgical melody's power is embraced in addition to concentration on the verbal text. The L8 prologues show the continuing currency of the idea that beautiful liturgical melody engenders effective worship.

Intertextuality and Old Hispanic Chant Texts

For Augustine, liturgical text is central in building rational devotion. For Isidore—when thinking of the already pious—the same is true. As in any set of texts utilized within an enculturated community, Old Hispanic liturgical texts cumulatively build webs of meaning that vary depending on the experience and knowledge of those encountering the texts.44 Such features can readily be reconciled with Augustine's and Isidore's valuing of textual meaning in devotion.

The simplest way of achieving intertextual resonance is repetition, which marks particular words and concepts as noteworthy. It is well known that textual repetition abounds in the Old Hispanic liturgy—across a season, a feast, a single office, or a missa.45 Two brief examples will serve to illustrate the point. In L8 and A30 the first week in Advent includes eighteen chants beginning “Ecce” (Behold!), inviting liturgical participants to witness the Lord's coming (see Table 4).46 The textual repetition would be noticed by any attentive listener, especially because three sets of four “Ecce” chants constitute single missae. The liturgy for Saint Cucuphas provides a second illustration (see Table 5). In vespers and the first missa of ad matutinum the chant texts prominently feature “the just man” (almost all shared with the set of common chants “de uno iusto”), focusing veneration on Saint Cucuphas's justness.47 

Table 4

Old Hispanic chants beginning “Ecce” in the first week of Advent in L8 (fols. 34v–37r) and A30 (fols. 27r–33v)a

ChantGenreLiturgical occasionBiblical source
Filii Syon (II) Ecce orietur Sono Advent Sunday 1, first vespers (L8) or second vespers (A30) Unknown (L8: marginal attribution to Isaiah) 
Ecce ego mittam angelum*1 Antiphon Advent Sunday 1, ad matutinum Mal. 3:1 
Ecce ego mittam ad gentes Antiphon Advent Sunday 1, ad matutinum Isa. 66:19; loose paraphrase 
Ecce super montes Alleluiaticus Advent Sunday 1, ad matutinum Nah. 1:15; four added alleluias 
Ecce Deus excelsus*2 Antiphon Monday, ad matutinum Job 36:22–23; 37:3 
Ecce procedet verbum*3 Antiphon Monday, ad matutinum Unknown (L8: marginal attribution to Joel) 
Ecce Dominus retributionis*4 Alleluiaticus Monday, ad matutinum Isa. 35:4–5 
Ecce Dominus in fortitudine Responsory Monday, ad matutinum Isa. 40:10; 42:11, 15–16; loose paraphrase 
Ecce veniet vir Antiphon Tuesday, vespers Zech. 6:12 
Ecce veniet Dominus*5 Antiphon Tuesday, ad matutinum Hab. 2:3 
Ecce venit tempus*6 Antiphon Tuesday, ad matutinum Dan. 6:26–27; loosely related 
Ecce Dominus auditum*7 Alleluiaticus Tuesday, ad matutinum Isa. 62:11 
Ecce quemadmodum Responsory Tuesday, ad matutinum Isa. 31:4–5 
Ecce revelabitur Antiphon Wednesday, vespers Isa. 40:5 
Ecce Dominus tuba Antiphon Wednesday, ad matutinum Zech. 9:14–15 
Ecce Dominus ascendet Antiphon Wednesday, ad matutinum Isa. 19:1, 4 (L8: a marginal gloss by this chant quotes Jerome on Isaiah, Commentariorum in Esaiam 7.19.8) 
Ecce festinus*8 Alleluiaticus Wednesday, ad matutinum Isa. 5:26–27 
Ecce Dominus egredietur Responsory Wednesday, ad matutinum Zech. 14:3–4, 7–8 
ChantGenreLiturgical occasionBiblical source
Filii Syon (II) Ecce orietur Sono Advent Sunday 1, first vespers (L8) or second vespers (A30) Unknown (L8: marginal attribution to Isaiah) 
Ecce ego mittam angelum*1 Antiphon Advent Sunday 1, ad matutinum Mal. 3:1 
Ecce ego mittam ad gentes Antiphon Advent Sunday 1, ad matutinum Isa. 66:19; loose paraphrase 
Ecce super montes Alleluiaticus Advent Sunday 1, ad matutinum Nah. 1:15; four added alleluias 
Ecce Deus excelsus*2 Antiphon Monday, ad matutinum Job 36:22–23; 37:3 
Ecce procedet verbum*3 Antiphon Monday, ad matutinum Unknown (L8: marginal attribution to Joel) 
Ecce Dominus retributionis*4 Alleluiaticus Monday, ad matutinum Isa. 35:4–5 
Ecce Dominus in fortitudine Responsory Monday, ad matutinum Isa. 40:10; 42:11, 15–16; loose paraphrase 
Ecce veniet vir Antiphon Tuesday, vespers Zech. 6:12 
Ecce veniet Dominus*5 Antiphon Tuesday, ad matutinum Hab. 2:3 
Ecce venit tempus*6 Antiphon Tuesday, ad matutinum Dan. 6:26–27; loosely related 
Ecce Dominus auditum*7 Alleluiaticus Tuesday, ad matutinum Isa. 62:11 
Ecce quemadmodum Responsory Tuesday, ad matutinum Isa. 31:4–5 
Ecce revelabitur Antiphon Wednesday, vespers Isa. 40:5 
Ecce Dominus tuba Antiphon Wednesday, ad matutinum Zech. 9:14–15 
Ecce Dominus ascendet Antiphon Wednesday, ad matutinum Isa. 19:1, 4 (L8: a marginal gloss by this chant quotes Jerome on Isaiah, Commentariorum in Esaiam 7.19.8) 
Ecce festinus*8 Alleluiaticus Wednesday, ad matutinum Isa. 5:26–27 
Ecce Dominus egredietur Responsory Wednesday, ad matutinum Zech. 14:3–4, 7–8 
a

Chants marked * are in OV, the superscript number showing their manuscript ordering. Chant *1 is assigned to Advent Sunday 1 (fol. 4v), chants *2–*4 are assigned to VIII Kalendas Decemb. (fol. 10v), and chants *5–*8 are assigned to VII Kalendas Decemb. (fols. 10v–11r). In this table and Table 5 orthography follows Brou and Vives, Antifonario visigótico mozárabe.

Table 5

Saint Cucuphas office chant texts in L8 (fol. 223v), BL45 (fol. 52v), and T6 (fols. 175v–177v)

Chant genreTextManuscriptsSource of textOther liturgical uses
Vespers 
Vesp. Speravit anima mea BL45, T6 Ps. 129:5–6 De uno iusto (S3); various saints 
Sono Iustus ut p[alma] L8 Ps. 91:13, 2–3, 5 Saint John, Saint Genesius 
Sono Benedic anima mea BL45, T6 Ps. 102:2–4 De uno iusto (BL51, S3, S6); various saints 
Ant. Iustus velut palma VR Os iusti L8, BL45, T6 Ps. 91:14 VR Ps. 36:30; Ps. 91:16 (BL45) De uno iusto (BL51, S3); various saints 
All. Iustus ut palma L8; ad matutinum chant in BL45, T6 Ps. 91:13 De uno iusto (BL51, S3); various saints 
Hymn Barcinon laete Cucufate VR Iustus velut (BL45, T6) or Iustum deduxit (hymnals) BL45, T6; BN01, BL51 (hymnals) Paraphrases saint's vita VR Ps. 91:13 or Wisdom 10:10  
Ad matutinum—missa
Ant. In capite iusti L8, BL45, T6 Origin unknown VR Ps. 14:2 (L8); Ps. 40:3 (L8 addition, BL45); Ps. 91:13 (T6) De uno iusto (BL51, S3); various saints 
Ant. Iustus si morte VR Os iusti (L8, BL45, T6) L8, BL45, T6 Wisdom 4:7 VR Ps. 36:30 (L8); Ps. 14:2 (L8 addition); Ps. 91:14 (BL45); Ps. 40:3 (T6) De uno iusto (BL51, S3); Saint Pelagius (BL45) 
All. In memoria eterna erit iustus L8; vespers chant in BL45, T6 Ps. 111:7 VR Ps. 111:7 (T6); Ps. 111:2 (L8); Beatus vir (BL45) De uno iusto (BL51, S3) 
Resp. De ore iusti VR Os iusti L8, BL45, T6 Song of Sol. 4:11 VR Ps. 36:30 De uno iusto (BL51, S3, S7, T3); various saints 
Sono Exaudisti me BL45, T6; incipit only Origin unknown II Ps. 138:5 De uno iusto (BL51, S3, S6); various saints 
Ad matutinummissa
Ant. Hic vir iustus et fidelis in vita sua multa fecit bona et post mortem laudabilia opera eius. VR Qui ingreditur. L8 Origin unknown VR Ps. 14:2 Saint Mammes (BL45) 
Ant. Iste homo multa bona fecit in vita sua et fidelis inventus est in gloria eterna. VR Beatus quem elegit. L8 Loose paraphrase of Eccles. 44:20–21 VR Ps. 64:5  
All. Hic est vir qui stetit contra reges orrendos et insignis et portentis alleluia alleluia. VR Beatus vir qui. L8 Wisdom 10:16 VR Beatus vir  
Resp. Hic vir etate gloria mirabilis abitum agni decoris amator fratrum multum orat pro populo. VR Dispersit dedit pauperibus iustitia eius manet in seculum seculi. REP Ama[tor]. L8 2 Macc. 15:13–14 VR Ps. 119:9  
Chant genreTextManuscriptsSource of textOther liturgical uses
Vespers 
Vesp. Speravit anima mea BL45, T6 Ps. 129:5–6 De uno iusto (S3); various saints 
Sono Iustus ut p[alma] L8 Ps. 91:13, 2–3, 5 Saint John, Saint Genesius 
Sono Benedic anima mea BL45, T6 Ps. 102:2–4 De uno iusto (BL51, S3, S6); various saints 
Ant. Iustus velut palma VR Os iusti L8, BL45, T6 Ps. 91:14 VR Ps. 36:30; Ps. 91:16 (BL45) De uno iusto (BL51, S3); various saints 
All. Iustus ut palma L8; ad matutinum chant in BL45, T6 Ps. 91:13 De uno iusto (BL51, S3); various saints 
Hymn Barcinon laete Cucufate VR Iustus velut (BL45, T6) or Iustum deduxit (hymnals) BL45, T6; BN01, BL51 (hymnals) Paraphrases saint's vita VR Ps. 91:13 or Wisdom 10:10  
Ad matutinum—missa
Ant. In capite iusti L8, BL45, T6 Origin unknown VR Ps. 14:2 (L8); Ps. 40:3 (L8 addition, BL45); Ps. 91:13 (T6) De uno iusto (BL51, S3); various saints 
Ant. Iustus si morte VR Os iusti (L8, BL45, T6) L8, BL45, T6 Wisdom 4:7 VR Ps. 36:30 (L8); Ps. 14:2 (L8 addition); Ps. 91:14 (BL45); Ps. 40:3 (T6) De uno iusto (BL51, S3); Saint Pelagius (BL45) 
All. In memoria eterna erit iustus L8; vespers chant in BL45, T6 Ps. 111:7 VR Ps. 111:7 (T6); Ps. 111:2 (L8); Beatus vir (BL45) De uno iusto (BL51, S3) 
Resp. De ore iusti VR Os iusti L8, BL45, T6 Song of Sol. 4:11 VR Ps. 36:30 De uno iusto (BL51, S3, S7, T3); various saints 
Sono Exaudisti me BL45, T6; incipit only Origin unknown II Ps. 138:5 De uno iusto (BL51, S3, S6); various saints 
Ad matutinummissa
Ant. Hic vir iustus et fidelis in vita sua multa fecit bona et post mortem laudabilia opera eius. VR Qui ingreditur. L8 Origin unknown VR Ps. 14:2 Saint Mammes (BL45) 
Ant. Iste homo multa bona fecit in vita sua et fidelis inventus est in gloria eterna. VR Beatus quem elegit. L8 Loose paraphrase of Eccles. 44:20–21 VR Ps. 64:5  
All. Hic est vir qui stetit contra reges orrendos et insignis et portentis alleluia alleluia. VR Beatus vir qui. L8 Wisdom 10:16 VR Beatus vir  
Resp. Hic vir etate gloria mirabilis abitum agni decoris amator fratrum multum orat pro populo. VR Dispersit dedit pauperibus iustitia eius manet in seculum seculi. REP Ama[tor]. L8 2 Macc. 15:13–14 VR Ps. 119:9  

As well as building intertextual meaning through textual repetition, the feast for Saint Cucuphas incorporates thematic allusion to the saint's vita. In the second ad matutinum missa (only in L8) “this man” is the primary focus. In the alleluiaticus “this man” stands against terrible kings in portents and signs, mirroring the vita's description of Saint Cucuphas's miraculous escapes from prefect Maximianus's multiple attempts to kill him.48 In the responsory “this man” prays for the people; Saint Cucuphas says eight prayers in the vita.49 The thematic links between the biblical chant texts and the vita focus the saint's veneration.

Particularly rich layers of meaning are built by late antique and early medieval Iberian commentaries on the Old Hispanic chant texts' biblical sources. Such commentaries are sometimes directly used within the Old Hispanic liturgy, showing their relevance to its interpretation. For example, the De virginitate of Ildefonsus of Toledo (d. 667) was read during the Marian feast (December 18) and extracts from Augustine's De civitate Dei were read at Christmas.50 Some Old Hispanic orations build on biblical commentaries, particularly Moralia in Iob by Gregory the Great (d. 604), dedicated to Leander of Seville,51 and works by Augustine.52 In L8 the devotional literature is evoked in eleven marginal glosses. These extracts from theological writings each relate to a chant in the main text. For example, Isidore's De fide catholica 1.10.4, combining Isaiah 7:14 and Isaiah 8:4 as a single unit for exegesis, is quoted in the margin of folio 68v. This gloss is copied next to the psallendum Alleluia vocabitis, which comprises exactly these two biblical verses. Such examples show that the commentary tradition and Old Hispanic chant were directly connected, although we cannot usually tell which came first.

This wider intellectual context also underpins the choice of chant texts for particular feasts, and the themes of their orations.  Appendix 2 shows examples from the feast of the Holy Cross (May 3), which combines Exaltation of the Cross with commemoration of its finding (the Invention).53 It always falls within Eastertide, and some components of its office have wider Eastertide assignments. This feast is interpretatively rich because it has a single clear focus (Exaltation of the Cross) while also intersecting theologically and textually with Eastertide. There are early witnesses to almost all of the feast's texts: the prayers and chant incipits are in the orationals, complete chants in L8, and some readings in the passionaria. Unsurprisingly, most of the uniquely assigned chant texts (or their orations) mention the Cross and/or the Crucifixion.54 Sometimes the Cross theme is implied rather than explicit, as in Psalm 1:3 ( Appendix 2, item 26). The tree in this text, which is described as growing and bearing fruit, is often interpreted as prefiguring the Cross.55 The tree of the Cross in the accompanying oration (item 27), “destroy[ing] the offence of the tree of transgression,” also appears in the hymn Pange lingua (item 6); and its “sweetness” is in the hymn Dulce carmen lingua (item 33). Ambrose of Milan identifies the tree of Psalm 1:3 as being the tree of life (from Proverbs 3:18).56 Through the oration, then, the tree of the responsory text becomes the living tree of the incarnate Christ, whose fruit is the loving and redemptive sign of the Cross. This illustrates the way the orations gloss the chant texts, sometimes drawing on other liturgical texts as well as on the commentary tradition that apparently shaped the decisions of the liturgy's compilers.

The commentary tradition reveals that four chants with Eastertide and Holy Cross assignments draw on both Resurrection and Crucifixion themes. The sono Ego dormivi (item 31) is based on Psalm 3:6–7, which, for most commentators, prefigures the Resurrection.57 Many commentators also reference the Passion as the cause of the sleep from which Jesus is seen to have risen.58 The Crucifixion itself is juxtaposed with Psalm 3:6 in Isidore's In Genesin 3.8,59 and in one of Augustine's sermons.60 This provides an interpretative context for the assignment of Ego dormivi to the Holy Cross: for the liturgy's compilers, Psalm 3 likely prefigured the Crucifixion as well as the Passion and Resurrection.

Manuscripts L8 and BL46 instead use the sono Alleluia torcular, based on Isaiah 63:3 and 5 (item 30). Isaiah 63:1–6 is the Holy Cross (and Eastertide) canticle, and the day's canticle antiphon (item 28) comes from Isaiah 63:5. For Jerome, Isaiah 63:3–5 prefigures Christ alone on the Cross,61 while Gregory the Great also evokes the Resurrection.62 Gregory's interpretation may have prompted the dual Eastertide and Holy Cross assignments of Alleluia torcular and the Isaiah 63 canticle.63 

The “evening sacrifice” of the vespertinus Elevatio manum (item 1) makes this the vespers text par excellence, and indeed there was an early medieval Iberian tradition of interpreting Psalm 140:2 in those terms.64 In an alternative interpretation Psalm 140:2 prefigures Jesus's arms stretched forth on the Cross,65 and the two interpretations are juxtaposed in Isidore's De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.20.1–2. Use of Elevatio manum on the feast of the Holy Cross, and specifically as a vespertinus, is thus readily explicable.

As I have shown, Old Hispanic texts combine to create meaning in several ways. Textual repetitions, often observed in this repertory, are the tip of the interpretative iceberg. There are more complex textual interactions at play here, in which the chant and oration texts draw on, and participate in, biblical commentary. Like other Western liturgies, but with the added specificity of the orations, the Old Hispanic liturgy seems to have been designed to direct reasoned concentration on devotional text. As such, the liturgy is compatible with the importance assigned to text by both Augustine and Isidore.

Text and Melody

It is more challenging to assess how the melodies contribute to each chant's web of meaning. Conceptually, melody and text are inextricably linked, since the melodies are preserved in neumes whose purpose is to attach musical gestures to individual syllables. The notation is unpitched, showing the rise and fall of the melody within each neume, but not defining pitch or intervallic content.66 Chant analysis conventionally focuses on tonal space. Notes lying above the main tessitura and approached by leap are often understood by scholars as marking the text with which they appear.67 Similarly, changes in tessitura can contribute to a musical “reading” of the text.68 Because almost all Old Hispanic chants lack pitched notation such methodologies do not translate into this repertory. Close engagement with the melodies has consequently been rare,69 while exploration of the way textual meaning and melody intersect has been almost nonexistent.70 The neumes do offer hints, however, as to the way Old Hispanic melodic structure and detail might shape text reception and relate to the music theologies of Isidore and Augustine.

In Franco-Roman chant musical and textual caesuras almost always coincide, the musical phrase divisions thus punctuating the texts.71 The same routinely occurs in Old Hispanic chants; I have chosen the antiphon Haec dicit dominus speculator (paraphrasing Isaiah 21:8 in four clauses)72 at random to illustrate this phenomenon. The second clause includes a genitive (“universe terre”) and the last includes a relative subclause (“ut non periret”):

Haec dicit dominus / speculator ego sum universe terre / steti jugiter super civitatem istam / vigilabi tota nocte ut non periret.

Thus says the Lord: I am the watchman of the whole earth. I stood continually on this city, I have watched it all night, that it would not be destroyed.

Secure identification of the cadence points requires knowledge of Old Hispanic melodic idioms. In Haec dicit dominus speculator, “dominus” has NH+NL+NH in L8 (see Figure 1a, box 1) and N+NHL+N in BL45 (Figure 1b, box 2).73 These neume shapes (with N or NH interchangeably on the last syllable) are very commonly found at the ends of textual units, especially those ending with some form of the word “dominus.” Further, NH+NL+N/NH is strongly associated with the León melodic dialect;74 cognate chants in the Rioja melodic dialect instead tend to have N+NHL+N/NH, as BL45 does here. The other clause endings share identical neumes with moments in Old Hispanic chant that are certainly cadential—at the ends of clauses, sentences, or whole chants. This strongly suggests that there are cadences at “terre” (L8, box 3) and “nocte” (both manuscripts, boxes 4 and 5);75 at “istam” (L8, box 6);76 and at “istam” and “terre” (BL45, boxes 7 and 8).77 A genitive is commonly preceded by a caesura in medieval chant, and this is the case on “ego sum,” whose neumes are characteristic of Old Hispanic internal cadences (boxes 9 and 10).78 The end of the chant also uses a common closing gesture (boxes 11 and 12).79 As this shows, the repertory is constructed in such a way that familiar cadential gestures are used across genres in order to articulate phrase divisions, contributing to effective text delivery. This is perhaps especially helpful when, as in this example, the biblical text is paraphrased rather than directly quoted. Thus, the frequently recurring cadence patterns in Old Hispanic chant facilitate devout apprehension of the text.

Figure 1a

Melody of the antiphon Haec dicit dominus speculator, as preserved in Léon, Cathedral Archive, MS 8 (L8), fol. 243r. Used by permission. Numbered boxes indicate neume combinations with cadential functions that recur across the repertory.

Figure 1a

Melody of the antiphon Haec dicit dominus speculator, as preserved in Léon, Cathedral Archive, MS 8 (L8), fol. 243r. Used by permission. Numbered boxes indicate neume combinations with cadential functions that recur across the repertory.

Figure 1b

Melody of the antiphon Haec dicit dominus speculator, as preserved in British Library, Add. MS 30845 (BL45), fol. 158r. ©The British Library Board; used by permission. Numbered boxes indicate neume combinations with cadential functions that recur across the repertory.

Figure 1b

Melody of the antiphon Haec dicit dominus speculator, as preserved in British Library, Add. MS 30845 (BL45), fol. 158r. ©The British Library Board; used by permission. Numbered boxes indicate neume combinations with cadential functions that recur across the repertory.

Structural repetition is intrinsic to many liturgical chants. Responsorial chants have the structure respond–verse–repetendum (repetition of the last part or all of the respond). Old Hispanic antiphons have the structure antiphon–psalm verse(s)–repetendum 1–doxology–repetendum 2 (often shorter than repetendum 1).80 For hearers, these structures help to establish the repeated material as key to the chant's meaning.81 Some Old Hispanic chants have melodic rhymes between the verse end and the material preceding the repetendum.82 This gives a strong connection between the verse end and the repetendum, since the same melody has approached the repetendum previously: familiarity helps to cement the association. The psalmus In omnem terram illustrates the phenomenon (see Figure 2). The chant is based on Psalm 18:5 (respond) and Psalm 18:4 (verse); these psalm verses end with the near synonyms “verba illorum” and “voces eorum.” In the psalmus, “voces eorum” is omitted from the verse text, and the sense is completed by the repetendum, “verba illorum” (Figure 2, box 1). The two syllables preceding “verba” in both verse and respond share a melody (boxes 2 and 3). This underlines the textual parallel.83 The melody's impact is cumulative within the chant's formal structure.

Figure 2

Melody of the psalmus In omnem terram, as preserved in L8, fol. 218r. Used by permission. Box 1 shows the repetendum cue; boxes 2 and 3 indicate repeated material.

Figure 2

Melody of the psalmus In omnem terram, as preserved in L8, fol. 218r. Used by permission. Box 1 shows the repetendum cue; boxes 2 and 3 indicate repeated material.

Particular portions of text can be marked by deviation from the melodic norms of the chant, its genre, or its liturgical season.84 Through such deviations textual meaning and chant melody can combine symbiotically to promote a particular theological message.85 The Franco-Roman, Old Roman, Milanese, and Beneventan traditions include families of formulaic chants, of which the best-known examples are the tracts (“cantus” in Milan). Within such chant families deviation from the formulaic norms are striking, particularly when these nonformulaic moments incorporate distinctive melodic material from otherwise unrelated chants.86 By contrast, the very few formulaic Old Hispanic chants either use a single melody for many verses in one chant (psalmi with multiple verses, and Easter Vigil canticles) or use a single verse melody across the whole genre (threni).87 There is no emphasis through melodic contrast here, since these melodies never depart from the formulaic shapes.

Franco-Roman chants in certain modes exhibit particular tonal behaviors, as do chants in certain genres within those modes.88 Departures from these norms can be understood as musically emphatic. Old Hispanic chants seem to have a rather different melodic grammar. Beyond the small minority of strictly formulaic Old Hispanic chants, almost every chant is built from melodic patterns that appear across multiple genres. While some patterns are particularly associated with phrase openings or cadences, I have not yet encountered evidence of “road maps” according to which cantors would navigate through familiar paths of melodic formulas.89 These melodic patterns are recognizable to modern analysts when they consist of several neumes, consistently combined. We have already observed some such patterns at cadence points in the antiphon Haec dicit dominus speculator. Similarly, a phrase or chant opening can often be traced across multiple chants, genres, and manuscripts. One example is found in twelve chants in L890 (see Figures 3ad, box 1; an illustrative four chants are shown here). Some of these chants have cognate versions in other tenth- or eleventh-century manuscripts, and these use the same opening.91 Each of these twelve chants has a different continuation, and each of these continuations draws on melodic patterns that can also be traced across the repertory. (Box 2 in Figures 3b and 3c shows further material shared by two chants, which subsequently diverge melodically.) As this illustrates, it is normal practice in Old Hispanic chant for melodic patterns to be combined to make phrases, but such combinations are rarely fixed. Indeed, it is a departure from the norm when a series of melodic patterns combines to make a whole phrase that is repeated from chant to chant. A combination of this sort occurs at the beginning of Haec dicit dominus speculator (see Figure 1). The melody that appears at “Haec dicit dominus” in L8 is used elsewhere in this manuscript only for three unica antiphons that begin with the same three words.92 The melody that opens Haec dicit dominus speculator in BL45 is preserved in four other chants that again begin with the same three words, across four manuscripts, and it also begins the responsory Ecce vir impius.93 Both melodies are almost exclusively associated with the text “Haec dicit dominus.” The unpitched neumes suggest a level of markedness in these chant openings because there is much more consecutive shared musical material than is normal for Old Hispanic chant.

Figure 3a

A shared chant opening (box 1) with variable melodic continuation, L8, fol. 44v. Used by permission.

Figure 3a

A shared chant opening (box 1) with variable melodic continuation, L8, fol. 44v. Used by permission.

Figure 3b

A shared chant opening and continuation (boxes 1 and 2), L8, fol. 284r. Used by permission.

Figure 3b

A shared chant opening and continuation (boxes 1 and 2), L8, fol. 284r. Used by permission.

Figure 3c

A shared chant opening and continuation (boxes 1 and 2), L8, fol. 294v. Used by permission.

Figure 3c

A shared chant opening and continuation (boxes 1 and 2), L8, fol. 294v. Used by permission.

Figure 3d

A shared chant opening (box 1), L8, fol. 300v. Used by permission.

Figure 3d

A shared chant opening (box 1), L8, fol. 300v. Used by permission.

Even though we cannot deduce which pitches were sung in Old Hispanic chant, we can always tell—at least approximately—how many notes were sung to each syllable.94 We can therefore establish the norms of melodic density within a chant or a feast. When different syllables have varying numbers of notes the pacing of text delivery shifts, and this affects our understanding of time passing.95 A melisma can underscore a particular word by lingering on it in an otherwise swiftly articulated text;96 equally, within an otherwise neumatic or melismatic texture the clear enunciation of a syllabic passage might mark it out. Such contrasts are common in Old Hispanic chant. Figures 4ac show examples drawn from the offices for the Holy Cross as preserved in L8, though Old Hispanic musical language is sufficiently universal across the entire repertory that the chants of almost any feast could be used to demonstrate how that musical language functions. Several of the Holy Cross chants have a modest melodic density, with from one to four notes per syllable and up to eight or nine at cadences.97 This sets an expectation for the “normal” speed of text delivery within the Holy Cross offices. When a syllable (or word) receives many more notes than those surrounding it, it stands out.

Figure 4a

Office chants for the feast of the Holy Cross (opening), as preserved in L8, fol. 196v. Used by permission. Boxes 1, 5, and 6 indicate long melismas; box 7 indicates neumes at the end of a text unit that are not characteristically cadential.

Figure 4a

Office chants for the feast of the Holy Cross (opening), as preserved in L8, fol. 196v. Used by permission. Boxes 1, 5, and 6 indicate long melismas; box 7 indicates neumes at the end of a text unit that are not characteristically cadential.

Figure 4b

Office chants for the feast of the Holy Cross (middle), as preserved in L8, fol. 197r. Used by permission. Boxes indicate long melismas.

Figure 4b

Office chants for the feast of the Holy Cross (middle), as preserved in L8, fol. 197r. Used by permission. Boxes indicate long melismas.

Figure 4c

Office chants for the feast of the Holy Cross (end), as preserved in L8, fol. 197v. Used by permission. Boxes indicate long melismas.

Figure 4c

Office chants for the feast of the Holy Cross (end), as preserved in L8, fol. 197v. Used by permission. Boxes indicate long melismas.

First, there are instances in which the elongated syllable articulates the relevance of the biblical message to the gathered community. Verse 1 of the sono Dominus Ihesus Christus has almost entirely undifferentiated pacing, with up to six notes per syllable except for the sixteen-note melisma on the final “alleluia.” Verse 2 opens with a long melisma on “Salvator noster” (Figure 4a, box 1; twenty-seven notes). Similarly, the longest melisma in the antiphon Redemisti nos domine is on “nos” (Figure 4b, box 2; ten notes), and there are three references to redemption in the accompanying oration ( Appendix 2, row 23). The same idea is presented, this time in the voice of Christ, in the forty-five-note melisma on “salvabit mici” (I did the saving myself) in the sono Alleluia torcular (Figure 4c, box 3). In all three cases, the music lingers on Christ as Savior of the gathered community.

Before the final “alleluia,” the responsory Ihesum nazarenum has from one to five notes per syllable and eight at cadences, except that T4 has twelve notes on “unxit” (“Jesus of Nazareth whom God anointed with the Holy Ghost”). Like the emphasis on Jesus as Redeemer and Savior, the lengthening here coincides with assertion of the orthodox Trinitarian position. By contrast, the antiphon Dominus deus patrum nostrorum has eleven notes on “quem vos interemistis” (Figure 4b, box 4). Heresy is a common theme in Old Hispanic liturgical texts, often associated—as here—with the Jews (see also  Appendix 2, row 19).98 In at least some cases the Jews may have been a conceptual foil for Arians, who were a very present “other” in early Visigothic culture;99 the choice of musically lengthened syllables in these chants perhaps demonstrates that the assertion of orthodox Trinitarianism against heresy had continuing importance.

As discussed above, the Holy Cross feast centered on the Crucifixion as the means by which Christ conquered death. The sono Dominus Ihesus Christus refers to death twice. Once it is prolonged with a long melisma (Figure 4a, box 5; thirty-seven notes). Before this, there may be an elision between the participle phrase “resurgens a mortuis” and “curvavit mortem”; I have not yet encountered the neumes on “mortuis” (box 7) in a cadential context. The lack of a familiar cadential gesture here perhaps focuses attention on “mortuis,” so that the conquered death is doubly emphasized. The Passion is also underscored in the alleluiaticus Testis fidelis and the sono Alleluia torcular, with expanded melodic density on “sanguine suo,” the blood of Christ (Figure 4c, box 8), and “calcabi” (box 9) respectively. As noted above, the “winepress trodden alone” signified the Cross for late antique commentators.

As these examples show, phrase divisions, coincidence of melodic and structural repetitions, entire melodic phrases repeated between chants, and striking shifts of melodic density contribute to a “reading” of the texts, with some words being underscored musically. These Old Hispanic musical strategies chime with Augustine's understanding of music's potential to contribute to textual appreciation (“sounds which your words animate”).100 In this way, text and melody combine to nudge liturgical participants toward a particular devotional experience.

Melody beyond Text

Each melisma discussed thus far can be understood as lending emphasis to the word or phrase on which it appears. Longer melismas of 50–300 notes or more are characteristic of Old Hispanic chants, particularly the soni and sacrificia. They almost always have a repetitive musical structure, with a final segment that is not repeated (e.g., AA′BB′C).101 Sometimes these long melismas are later additions to the manuscripts, marching up the margins in a visually striking way. They were certainly part of the musical language by the early tenth century, however; there are multiple long melismas in L8's main text for which ample space was left by the original text scribe(s). During such melismas, textual meaning inevitably recedes into the background for singers and hearers alike. Rather than reflecting Augustine's prioritization of text over melody in Confessions, these extended melismas provide an opportunity for liturgical participants to enter a state of jubilation. They are compatible with Isidore's value system discussed above, in which novel and diverse liturgical melody positively moves the emotions, with or without concentration on text.

Praising words are typically associated with long melismas, particularly “alleluia.”102 While several alleluias in the office for the Holy Cross have modest melismas (approximately twenty to twenty-five notes; see Figures 4b and 4c, boxes 10–13), one is longer, and has a repetitive structure (Figure 4c, box 14; AA′B). “Alleluia” was frequently added to the biblical texts when the Old Hispanic chant texts were compiled. (There are no fewer than twenty added alleluias in  Appendix 2.) Although by no means all alleluias receive long melismas, the word permeates the whole repertory (outside Lent). Other examples (among many) of praising words that carry a long melisma include “Gloria,” “exaltabo te,” “psallant ei,” and “laude.”103 Similarly, “divine imperatives” and “divine vocatives,” directly pleading with or addressing God, can coincide with long melismas.104 While the laudes is an Old Hispanic chant genre that emphasizes praise, the word “laudes” is also used twenty-nine times in L8 to signal the melismatic “alleluia” of the office sono.105 This lends fresh significance to Isidore's definition of “laudes” in De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.13.1–2:

To sing laudes, that is, “alleluia,” is an ancient Hebrew custom, whose explanation consists in the interpretation of two words: that is, “praise [of] God.” Regarding this mystery, John refers in the Apocalypse to the Spirit revealing itself to him, and hearing the voice of a company of angels out of heaven, “like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty thunderpeals, crying out ‘alleluia’” [Rev. 19:6]. From this, it is indisputable that this mystery of praise, if celebrated with suitable faith and devotion, is joined to that of the angels.106 

After Isidore, many commentators developed the idea of textless chant melody unifying the church and the angels in songs of praise, through the agency of the Holy Spirit.107 Isidore understands laudes as sung with the angels; and Old Hispanic alleluias are often associated with long melismas. It thus seems likely that textless melody on “alleluia” and other praising words was understood in medieval Iberia as joining the devout with the angels, paralleling the later commentaries from north of the Pyrenees. This association would have been equally strong in long melismas whose texts explicitly locate the praise in heaven. (Examples include “excelso,”108 “excelsi,”109 and “firmamentum.”110)

We should bear in mind that expressions of praise, divine vocatives, divine imperatives, and descriptions of heaven can equally receive a modest musical treatment in Old Hispanic chants. The opportunity for jubilation can be overridden by other textual or musical priorities. Similarly, long melismas can appear on words that are unconnected to these praising themes. These commonly appear at or near the end of a chant, and represent a different way of transcending words in praise: once liturgical participants have received all of the textual sense, it is the perfect opportunity for jubilation, whatever the word (see, for example, Figure 4a, box 6; AA′BBC).111 A striking example occurs in the laudes Alleluia omnes gentes, whose text is “Alleluia omnes gentes plaudete manibus iubilate deo in voce letitie” (L8, fol. 35v). Rather than providing a direct depiction or enactment of praise on “iubilate,” the jubilatory long melisma is reserved for the final syllable (see Figure 5).

Figure 5

Laudes Alleluia omnes gentes, as preserved in L8, fol. 35v. Used by permission.

Figure 5

Laudes Alleluia omnes gentes, as preserved in L8, fol. 35v. Used by permission.

There is a paradox in these long melismas. While the jubilus was a spontaneous outpouring of joy, the notation of melismas occurred outside the moment of liturgical praise. Singing them subsequently might incite jubilation in others, but how could it be a spontaneous act of jubilation for the singers? Comparison of cognate chants in different Iberian witnesses reveals, however, that the long melismas are the least stable parts of chants. They are built from independent segments of melody, which could be substituted, omitted, or added at different times, in different institutions, and even within a single manuscript witness. In L8 the final laudes of a sono is often signaled by the abbreviation “LDE” in the main text, and the alleluia is added in the margin.112 In some cases “LDE” has been written but no marginal melisma has been added.113 We cannot know whether, in performance, these laudes were omitted, a melisma notated elsewhere (in the same or another manuscript) was sung, a melisma was sung from memory, or a melisma was improvised. In the case of two soni preserved in the early witnesses PB99 and L8, PB99 preserves only one melisma section, whereas L8 has a much longer melisma.114 Perhaps the PB99 singers did not use long melismas here, or perhaps they used the L8 melismas (notated in abbreviated form), or perhaps they used different melismas, with abbreviated notation. Further examples involving other manuscripts could be cited, where two manuscripts have divergent melismas, or where one manuscript has a notated melisma and another does not. This suggests that there may still have been an element of spontaneity in the practice of melisma singing and notation, likely characterized by selection from an existing repertory of melisma segments rather than relying on unstructured improvisation. These melismas divert attention away from the flow of textual logic and, as such, might be seen as promoting concentrated attention on the present moment and an escape from distension. The Old Hispanic practice of clearly patterning the melismas might, however, tend to pull participants into memory of the recent past and anticipation of the melody to come. Since these melismas do not facilitate concentration on text and, moreover, have structures that might easily put people in a state of distension, it is hard to imagine Augustine approving their use. For Isidore, however, the flow of beautiful melodies such as these could be embraced for its potential in conversion.

Conclusion

This study offers a methodological model for exploring the music theology of a particular ritual tradition. While it is well known that Isidore derived much of his musical thought from Augustine, the precise nature of the borrowings and the implications of what is left unsaid tell us that the two writers had distinct music theologies. This provides a new departure point for appraisal of the musical value system evidenced by the Old Hispanic liturgy. For other ritual traditions, coeval commentaries may similarly provide a conceptual framework within which music's place in worship can be freshly appreciated.

As we have seen in relation to the Holy Cross feast, Old Hispanic liturgical texts lead participants along particular devotional paths: the act of selecting, compiling, and combining liturgical texts is a theological act. The relationships between these texts and the theological writings known to liturgical practitioners further enrich the experience. The combination of words and melody can additionally contribute to the web of textual meaning. Sometimes this seems simply to be a result of music's role in enunciating, parsing, and acoustically projecting the words. At other times, however, melody gives a particular reading of its text. This can be discerned only when the musical norms of the repertory are understood; departures from these norms mark words and concepts that connect intertextually to the wider culture, or words that have particular rhetorical weight. The idea that melodic detail helps direct attentive listeners in their text-based devotion can readily be reconciled with Augustine's ethical priority of rational worship. One benefit of this approach is its specificity: liturgical texts are surrounded in practical use by an interpretative apparatus particular to that time and cultural context. These interpretations can be interrogated in tandem with the melodic language, revealing melody's potential to “read” and, sometimes, to transcend text.

There are also moments in Old Hispanic chant when melody transcends words. Strikingly long Iberian melismas offer the opportunity for liturgical jubilation, where praise transcends words in unity with the angels. From Augustine's perspective, while jubilation is a positive thing, elaborate music also has the potential to distract from focus on the divine: the emotions can take over; participants can lose their concentration on the text; or they can fall into distension, rather than unifying past, present, and future in a concentrated experience of the passing moment. Long Iberian melismas are difficult to reconcile with Augustine's assertion that sacred text should be fundamental to religious song, or with his attitude toward distension. Isidore's choice of vocabulary and concepts within his practice of brevitas, the L8 prologues, and the Old Hispanic melodies themselves, however, point to a different value system in early medieval Iberia. Here, elaborate devotional melody can lead the faithful and unfaithful alike toward a transcendent anticipation of heaven, beyond a reasoned concentration on liturgical text. Combining consideration of chant texts and melodies, readings and prayers, in the wider theological context gives us a vivid sense of how this early chant repertory might have conveyed meaning—musically, devotionally, and theologically—in medieval practice.

Appendices

Appendix 1

Manuscripts cited

Manuscript siglumaShelfmarkManuscript typeDateOrigin
A30 Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia, MS Aemil. 30 Liber misticus (Temporale and Sanctorale, beginning of Advent until Sunday In carnes tollendas10th or 11th century Probably San Millán de la Cogolla 
BL45 London, British Library, Add. MS 30845 Liber misticus (Sanctorale feasts, Saint Quiricus (June 13) to Saint Millán (November 12); votive masses; common of saints; Letanias canonicas10th or 11th century Uncertain; possibly San Millán de la Cogolla 
BL46 London, British Library, Add. MS 30846 Eastertide liber misticus; canticles and hymns (fols. 57r–73v) 10th or 11th century Uncertain 
BL51 London, British Library, Add. MS 30851 Psalter, canticles, hymns; liber horarum (monastic night offices); occasional rituals; vespers and ad matutinum for various categories of saint (common of saints); vespers and ad matutinum for the first two quotidian Sundays 11th century Uncertain 
BL52 London, British Library, Add. MS 30852 Orational (Temporale and Sanctorale, whole year) Late 9th century or first half of 10th; notation may be late 10th century Uncertain 
BN01 Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, MS 10001 Psalter, canticles, hymns; fragmentary notated liber misticus (flyleaves, two folios); palimpsest antiphoner fragment Ca. 1100 or somewhat later (main part); 11th century (liber misticusPalaeographic and musical connections to Toledo; annotations link it to parish of Santa Eulalia; origin uncertain. Part copied by presbyter Mauro for presbyter Abundancio, and part copied by Mauricio for Veraniano. 
BN10 Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, MS 10110 Liber misticus (Lenten weekday offices) Second half of 13th century Copied by Ferdinandum Iohannes, parish priest of Santas Justa y Rufina, Toledo; liturgical tradition B 
L8 León, Cathedral Archive, MS 8 Antiphonary (whole year) First third of 10th century Léon region 
OV Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS LXXXIX Orational Before 732 Unknown (previously thought to be Tarragona) 
PB99 Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS nouv. acq. lat. 2199 Antiphonary fragment (dedication of a church (incomplete); vespers for bishop's ordination; common of saints (incomplete); lists of quotidian vespertini and soni) Late 9th or early 10th century Unknown 
S3 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 3 Calendar (fols. 1r–6v); ‘sacerdotal’ liber ordinum (fols. 7r–106v); liber misticus (common of saints, quotidian ferias, fols. 107r–179v); Assumption and accompanying relatio (fols. 180r–205v) Calendar predates 1064; liber ordinum dated 1039 (colophon); liber misticus late 11th century Unknown; for parish use. Liber ordinum copied by Iohanne presbitero (fol. 177r). 
S4 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 4 ‘Episcopal’ liber ordinum 1052 (some have read this as 1022) Copied by priest Bartholomew on the orders of Abbot Domingo of the monastery of San Prudencio de Laturce; sponsored by Sancho Garceiz and his wife Bizinnina. Place of copying uncertain: tends to be associated with the wealthy Abelda rather than with San Prudencio; Collins suggests San Millán de la Cogolla.b 
S5 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 5 Readings and office of the Blessed Virgin Mary (December 18) The date on the colophon has variously been read as 1059, 1056, and 1009 Uncertain; copied by Blasco 
S6 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 6 Paper liber misticus (common of saints, fols. 1r–37v); parchment liber misticus (ten quotidian Sundays, fols. 38r–154v) Late 10th or 11th century Uncertain 
S7 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 7 Liber misticus (votive offices); liber horarum 11th century Uncertain; monastic 
T3 Toledo, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 33-3 Liber horarum Late 12th century Probably Toledo; monastic. One scribe is Elenus abba (fol. 67v). 
T4 Toledo, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 35-4 Liber misticus (Eastertide, quotidian Sundays) Mid-13th century or later Probably Toledo. Owned by parish of Santa Eulalia, Toledo, until at least 1398 (fol. 172v). 
T5 Toledo, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 35-5 Liber misticus (Lent, Easter week) 13th century Probably Toledo; liturgical tradition B 
T6 Toledo, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 35-6 Liber misticus (Easter week to Saints Justus and Pastor) Late 10th or early 11th century Unknown; text hand with central peninsular characteristics, possibly Toledan. Musical notation and contents suggest a complex interaction of influences from further north and the Toledo region. 
Manuscript siglumaShelfmarkManuscript typeDateOrigin
A30 Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia, MS Aemil. 30 Liber misticus (Temporale and Sanctorale, beginning of Advent until Sunday In carnes tollendas10th or 11th century Probably San Millán de la Cogolla 
BL45 London, British Library, Add. MS 30845 Liber misticus (Sanctorale feasts, Saint Quiricus (June 13) to Saint Millán (November 12); votive masses; common of saints; Letanias canonicas10th or 11th century Uncertain; possibly San Millán de la Cogolla 
BL46 London, British Library, Add. MS 30846 Eastertide liber misticus; canticles and hymns (fols. 57r–73v) 10th or 11th century Uncertain 
BL51 London, British Library, Add. MS 30851 Psalter, canticles, hymns; liber horarum (monastic night offices); occasional rituals; vespers and ad matutinum for various categories of saint (common of saints); vespers and ad matutinum for the first two quotidian Sundays 11th century Uncertain 
BL52 London, British Library, Add. MS 30852 Orational (Temporale and Sanctorale, whole year) Late 9th century or first half of 10th; notation may be late 10th century Uncertain 
BN01 Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, MS 10001 Psalter, canticles, hymns; fragmentary notated liber misticus (flyleaves, two folios); palimpsest antiphoner fragment Ca. 1100 or somewhat later (main part); 11th century (liber misticusPalaeographic and musical connections to Toledo; annotations link it to parish of Santa Eulalia; origin uncertain. Part copied by presbyter Mauro for presbyter Abundancio, and part copied by Mauricio for Veraniano. 
BN10 Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, MS 10110 Liber misticus (Lenten weekday offices) Second half of 13th century Copied by Ferdinandum Iohannes, parish priest of Santas Justa y Rufina, Toledo; liturgical tradition B 
L8 León, Cathedral Archive, MS 8 Antiphonary (whole year) First third of 10th century Léon region 
OV Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS LXXXIX Orational Before 732 Unknown (previously thought to be Tarragona) 
PB99 Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS nouv. acq. lat. 2199 Antiphonary fragment (dedication of a church (incomplete); vespers for bishop's ordination; common of saints (incomplete); lists of quotidian vespertini and soni) Late 9th or early 10th century Unknown 
S3 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 3 Calendar (fols. 1r–6v); ‘sacerdotal’ liber ordinum (fols. 7r–106v); liber misticus (common of saints, quotidian ferias, fols. 107r–179v); Assumption and accompanying relatio (fols. 180r–205v) Calendar predates 1064; liber ordinum dated 1039 (colophon); liber misticus late 11th century Unknown; for parish use. Liber ordinum copied by Iohanne presbitero (fol. 177r). 
S4 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 4 ‘Episcopal’ liber ordinum 1052 (some have read this as 1022) Copied by priest Bartholomew on the orders of Abbot Domingo of the monastery of San Prudencio de Laturce; sponsored by Sancho Garceiz and his wife Bizinnina. Place of copying uncertain: tends to be associated with the wealthy Abelda rather than with San Prudencio; Collins suggests San Millán de la Cogolla.b 
S5 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 5 Readings and office of the Blessed Virgin Mary (December 18) The date on the colophon has variously been read as 1059, 1056, and 1009 Uncertain; copied by Blasco 
S6 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 6 Paper liber misticus (common of saints, fols. 1r–37v); parchment liber misticus (ten quotidian Sundays, fols. 38r–154v) Late 10th or 11th century Uncertain 
S7 Santo Domingo de Silos, Biblioteca del Monasterio, MS 7 Liber misticus (votive offices); liber horarum 11th century Uncertain; monastic 
T3 Toledo, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 33-3 Liber horarum Late 12th century Probably Toledo; monastic. One scribe is Elenus abba (fol. 67v). 
T4 Toledo, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 35-4 Liber misticus (Eastertide, quotidian Sundays) Mid-13th century or later Probably Toledo. Owned by parish of Santa Eulalia, Toledo, until at least 1398 (fol. 172v). 
T5 Toledo, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 35-5 Liber misticus (Lent, Easter week) 13th century Probably Toledo; liturgical tradition B 
T6 Toledo, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 35-6 Liber misticus (Easter week to Saints Justus and Pastor) Late 10th or early 11th century Unknown; text hand with central peninsular characteristics, possibly Toledan. Musical notation and contents suggest a complex interaction of influences from further north and the Toledo region. 
a

Sigla are derived from Randel, Index, except that I use “L8” rather than “AL” (“L8” incorporates the shelfmark), I use “S3,” “S4,” etc., rather than “Silos 3,” “Silos 4,” etc., and all London manuscripts are labeled “BL” rather than “BM,” reflecting their move to the British Library. An appendix with full bibliographic commentary on each manuscript is included in Hornby and Maloy, “Melodic Dialects.”

b

Collins, “Continuity and Loss,” 5.

Appendix 2

Office items for the Holy Cross: OV, items 984–95; L8, fols. 196v–197v; T4, fols. 50r–52v; T6, fols. 65r–70r; BL52, fols. 103v–105r; BL46, fols. 96r–98r

ItemChant texts, in manuscript orderaSourceTranslationMSS
Vespertinus: Elevatio manum mearum sacrificium vespertinum. VR Dirigatur domine oratio mea in conspectu tuo sicut incensum. REP Ves[pertinum]. Ps. 140:2 The lifting up of my hands as evening sacrifice. [v] Let my prayer, Lord, be directed as [rep: evening] incense in your sight. L8 (also Sunday In carnes tollendas), T4, T6 (also Ascension) 
Vespertinus: Sicut Christus surgens a mortuis per gloriam patris ambulemus in novitate vite. VR Ipse dominus in iussu arcangeli et in tuba dei descendit de celo et mortui qui in Christo sunt resurgunt primi. REP In nobi[tate vite]. Rom. 6:4
1 Thess. 4:15 
Like Christ rising from the dead by the glory of the Father may we walk in the newness of life. [v] For the Lord himself shall come down from heaven on the commandment of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God: and the dead who are in Christ rise first. L8 (marginal) 
Sono: Dominus Ihesus Christus surrexit a mortuis tertia diȩ et vivit ex virtute dei alleluia.II Salvator noster resurgens a mortuis curvabit morte[m]. Et inluminabit nos vite eternitate. REP Et vivit. Rom. 6:4
2 Cor. 13:4
2 Tim. 1:10 
Lord Jesus Christ rose from the dead on the third day and lives by the power of God. Alleluia. [ii] Our Savior rising from the dead has made death submit and has illuminated us with eternity of life. L8, T4, T6 
Antiphon: Gloriemur in cruce domini nostri Ihesu Christi per quem nobis mundus crucifixus est nosque mundo. VR Dicite in nationibus [dominus regnavit a ligno etenim correxit orbem terre qui non commovebitur]. REP Gloriemur … [Gloria …] REP Per quem … Gal. 6:14
[v] Ps. 95:10 
Let us glory in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom the world was crucified to us, and we to the world. [v] Say ye among the nations, the Lord has reigned on the tree. For he has corrected the world, which shall not be moved. L8, T4, T6 
Alleluiaticus: Pacificabit omnia per sanguinem crucis sue sive que in celis sive que in terris sunt dominus Ihesus Christus quoniam in ipso habitat omnis plenitudo divinitatis corporaliter qui est caput omnis principatus alleluia alleluia.VR Lapidem quem [reprobaverunt aedificantes hic factus est in caput anguli]. REP Qui est caput … [Gloria …] REP Alleluia. Col. 1:20; 2:9–10
[v] Ps. 117:22 
He has pacified all things through the blood of his Cross, both as to the things that are in heaven, and as to the things that are on earth; the Lord Jesus Christ, because in him there dwells all the fullness of the Godhead corporeally, who is the head of all principality. Alleluia, alleluia. [v] The stone that the builders rejected; the same is become the head of the corner. L8, T4, T6 
Hymn (transcribed from T6): Pange linguam [sic] gloriosi prelium … [v] Ps. 95:10 [Cross-themed hymn; full text not given here] L8, T4, T6, BN01 (fol. 138r), BL46 (fol. 70r) 
v2: De parentis protoplausti fraude factor condolens quando pomi noxialis morte morsu corruit ipse lignum tunc notabit damna ligni ut solberet. v2: Eating of the tree forbidden, man had sunk in Satan's snare, when our pitying Creator did this second tree prepare; destined, many ages later, that first evil to repair. 
VR Dominus regnabit a li[gno]. OR [v] Say ye among the nations, the Lord has reigned on the tree. For he hath corrected the world, which shall not be moved: he will judge the people with justice. 
VR Dicite in nationibus dominus regnabit a ligno. 
Psallendum: Regna terre. [incipit only] Ps. 67:33 Kingdoms of the earth, sing to God: sing to the Lord: sing to God, who mounts above the heaven of heavens to the east. L8 
Psallendum: Lapis quem reprobaverunt. [incipit only] Ps. 117:22 The stone that was rejected by the builders; the same is become the head of the corner. T4 
Completuria: Domine Iesu Christe, noster conditor ac redemtor, qui nosti nos cecidisse saucios in delictis: erige nos in virtute et victoria sancte Crucis, da nobis salutis esse premium, quod tibi pro nobis fuit penale supplicium; ut in eo quod tu mortem sustulistis ad mortis victoriam, nos habeamus ad peccatorum veniam et vitam aeternam.  O Lord Jesus Christ, our Creator and Redeemer, who knew that we had fallen down and were wounded in sin: raise us up in the power and victory of the Holy Cross. Grant us to be the reward of salvation, because you took painful punishment for us; so in that which you suffered death for victory over death, we might have forgiveness of sins and eternal life. BL52, T4, T6 
10 Benedictio: Christus [T6: dei filius] dominus, qui pacificavit omnia per sanguinem crucis sue, vera vos vitiorum crucifixione mortificet. Ut, erecti semper in victoriam crucis, devicto perpetim diabulo triumfetis. Quo venerabile Crucis festum devotione promptissima celebrantes, et hic et in aeternum mereamini sine fine esse felices.  May Christ the Lord, who has brought peace to all through the blood of his Cross, mortify you of your sins by his real Crucifixion, so that, always standing upright in the victory of the Cross, you may forever triumph over the devil in his defeat, so that, as you celebrate with ready devotion the venerable feast of the Cross, you may merit to be happy now and forever without end. BL52, T4, T6 
11 Ps. 3 antiphon: Ego dormivi. (Psalm 3 was sung every day, and there are several antiphons beginning “Ego dormivi” for this psalm.) Ps. 3:6 I have slept and taken my rest: and I have risen up, because the Lord has protected me. L8, T4, T6 (also Eastertide) 
12 Antiphon: Christus Ihesus qui cum in forma Dei esset non rapinam arbitratus est esse se equalem deo sed semetipsum exinanibit formam servi accipiens humiliabit se usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis. VR Dominus regnavit a lignoREP Esse se equalem … [Gloria …] REP Esse se equalem … Phil. 2:6–8
[v] Ps. 95:10 
Jesus Christ, who was in the form of God, did not deem it robbery to be equal with God: but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant. He humbled himself unto death, even to death on the Cross. [v] The Lord has reigned on the tree. For he has corrected the world, which shall not be moved. BL52, L8, T4, T6 
13 Oration: Christe Iesu, qui mortalitatis nostre forma suscepta mortis et crucis voluisti sustinere iniuriam: da nobis; ut, Crucis tue munimine circumsepti, devincamus omnes laqueos inimici.  Christ Jesus, who took on the form of our mortality, voluntarily sustained the injustice of the Cross and death: grant us that, having been surrounded by the fortification of your Cross, we may overcome all the snares of the enemy. BL52, T4, T6 
14 Antiphon: Dominus deus patrum nostrorum suscitabit filium suum Ihesum quem vos interemistis clamantes ante faciem Pilati crucifige crucifige. VR Dicite in nati[onibus] … OR VR Quis sicut Dominus Deus noster qui in altis habitat et humilia respicit in caelo et in terra. REP Quem vos … [Gloria …] REP Dominus deus patrum nostrorum … Acts 3:13,
Luke 23:21
[v] Ps. 95:10
OR Ps. 112:5 
Lord God of our fathers hath awakened his Son Jesus, whom you destroyed, crying before the face of Pilate, Crucify, crucify. [v] Say ye among the nations: the Lord has reigned on the tree. For he has corrected the world, which shall not be moved. OR [v] Who is as the Lord our God, who dwells on high: and looks down on the low things in heaven and in earth. BL52, L8, T4, T6 
15 Oration: Deus patrum nostrorum, qui filium tuum interemptum ab impiis supplicio crucis resuscitasti magne gloria potestatis: fac nos; ut ita Crucis tue semper obsequatur volumtas, ut eterna nos ex hoc subsequatur felicitas.  God of our fathers, who by the glory of your great power brought back to life your Son, killed by the impious with the punishment of the Cross: make our will so to be obedient always to thy Cross, that as a result everlasting happiness may obtain for us. BL52, T4, T6 
16 Alleluiaticus: Iuste iudicans peccata nostra portavit in corpore suo super lignum ut a malis separati cum iustitia vivamus cuius vulnere sanati sumus qui sicut oves errabamus alleluia alleluia.VR Quis sicut dominus deus noster … OR VR Sit nomen d[omini] … OR VR Incipite domino … REP Cum iustitia vivamus … [Gloria …] REP Alleluia (final one). 1 Pet. 2:23–25
[v] Ps. 112:5
OR Ps. 112:2
OR Ps. 146:7 
Rightly judging he has borne our sins in his body upon the tree: that we, rescued from sin, should live with justice: by whose wounds we were healed, we who have gone astray like sheep. Alleluia, alleluia. [v] Who is as the Lord our God, who dwelleth on high: and looketh down on the low things in heaven and in earth? OR [v] Blessed be the name of the Lord, from henceforth now and for ever. OR [v] Sing ye to the Lord with praise: sing to our God upon the harp. BL52, L8, T4, T6 (also Sunday after the Easter Octave in all four manuscripts plus OV) 
17 Oration: Iuste quidem, Domine, iudicans peccata nostra in corpore tuo super lignum portasti, quum diabolum non potestate, sed iusticia devicisti; ut qui per debitam mortem nostram servituti eius subiugati eramus, per indebitam mortem tuam ad libertatis gratiam rediremus: fac nos ergo; ut in te semper liberi esse possimus, qualiter tecum et hic et in aeternum sine fine vivamus.  Rightly indeed, Lord, judging did you bear our sins in your body on the tree, when you defeated the devil not by power but by justice, so that we, who had been his subjugated slaves through our deserved death, might return to the grace of freedom through your undeserved death: make us therefore able to be free persons in you always, as we live with you without end, both now and forever. BL46, BL52, L8, T4, T6 
18 Responsory: Ihesum nazarenum quem unxit deus spiritu sancto et virtute quem iudei reppulerunt et occiderunt suspendentes in ligno hunc deus suscitabit post diem tertium et dedit illum manifestum fieri non omni populo sed in nobis praedestinatis ab eo qui cum ipso manducabimus et bivimus et conversati sumus postquam resurrexit alleluia. VRDominus Ihesus Christus qui est testis fidelis primogenitus mortuorum ipse dilexit nos et labit nos a peccatis nostris. REP Postquam. Acts 10:38–41
[v] Apoc. 1:5 
Jesus of Nazareth, whom God anointed with the Holy Ghost, and with power, whom the Jews spurned and killed, hanging him upon a tree, him God raised up after the third day, and gave him to be made manifest, not to all the people, but to us preordained by him, who did eat and drink and talk with him after he was resurrected. Alleluia. [v] Lord Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the first begotten of the dead, he himself has loved us, and washed us from our sins. In missa 1: BL52, BL46, T6.
In missa 2: L8, T4. 
19 Oration: O Iesu Nazarene, qui a iudeis suspensus in ligno magno resurrectionis devicta morte triumfasti miraculo: dignare te manifestum fieri in cordibus nostris; ut, qui post mortem Crucis resurgens tuis es manifestatus discipulis, post vulnera nostre corruptionis tue nos subsequatur munera pietatis.  O Jesus of Nazareth, who was suspended on a great tree by the Jews, you triumphed through the miracle of Resurrection, conquering death: vouchsafe that you should be manifest in our hearts; that, who after death of the Cross, rising, showed yourself to your disciples, after the wounds of our corruption, the gifts of your love should come to us. In missa 1: BL52, BL46, T6.
In missa 2: T4. 
20 Antiphon: In nomine domini omne genu flectatur caelestium terrestrium et infernorum quia dominus obediens usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis ideo dominus Ihesus Christus in gloria est dei patris. VR Omnes gentes [plaudete manibus]. OR VR Audite hec … REP Quia dominus obediens … [Gloria …] REP In gloria est dei patris. Phil. 2:10, 8, 11
[v] Ps. 46:2
OR Ps. 48:2 
In the name of the Lord every knee should bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and in hell. Because the Lord becoming obedient unto death, even to the death of the Cross, therefore the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father. [v] O clap your hands, all ye nations: shout unto God with the voice of Joy. OR [v] Hear these things, all ye nations: give ear, all ye inhabitants of the world. OV, BL46, BL52, L8, T4, T6 
21 Oration: Christe, Dei filius, in cuius nomine per Crucis misterium omne flectitur genu: da nobis in cruce tua copiosius exultare; ut in eius victoria et inlesi mare seculi transeamus, et ad te coronaturi post nostrum transitum accedamus.  Christ, the Son of God, in whose name by the mystery of the Cross every knee should bow, grant us to exult copiously in your Cross; that in his victory we may pass unharmed over the sea of this world, and may come to you for crowning after our passage. OV, BL46, BL52, T4, T6 
22 Antiphon: Redemisti nos domine sanguine tuo ex omni tribu et lingua et fecisti nos regnum deo nostro. VR Confiteantur tibi populi [confiteantur]. REP Ex omni tribu … [Gloria …] REP Regnum deo nostro. Apoc. 5:9–10
[v] Ps. 66:4 
You have redeemed us, Lord, in your blood, out of every tribe, and tongue. And hast made us to our God a kingdom. [v] Let people confess to thee, O God: let all people give praise to thee. OV, BL46, BL52, L8, T4, T6 
23 Oration: Redemtor noster et domine, qui nos olim redemisti per sanguinem Crucis tuae: redime nos a perpetuae mortis condicione; ut in cruce tua, et victoriam de vitiis capiamus, et aeterno post mortem de munere consolemur.  Our Redeemer and Lord, you who redeemed us once by the blood of your Cross: redeem us from the condition of perpetual death; that in your Cross we might seize victory over sin, and may be comforted with the eternal gift after death. OV, BL46, BL52, T4, T6 
24 Alleluiaticus: Testis fidelis primogenitus mortuorum et princeps regum terre dilexit nos et labit nos a peccatis nostris sanguine suo alleluia alleluia.VRQuis sicut [dominus …] OR VR Qui sanat con[tritos …] REP Dilexit nos … [Gloria …] REP Alleluia (final one). Apoc. 1:5
[v] Ps. 112:5
OR Ps. 146:3 
The faithful witness, the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth has loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood. Alleluia, alleluia. [v] Who is as the Lord our God, who dwells on high, and looks down on the low things in heaven and in earth? OR [v] Who heals the broken of heart, and binds up their bruises. OV, BL46, BL52, L8, T4, T6 
25 Oration: Iesu Dei filius, testis fidelis, primogenitus mortuorum: presta, ut testimonium crucis sit nobis ad emolumentum aeternae salvationis; ut, qui sanguine tuo lavasti miseros a peccatis, misericordia consueta confitentes tibi liberes ab aeternis suppliciis.  Jesus, the Son of God, faithful witness, the first begotten of the dead: grant that the testimony of the Cross be to us the benefit of eternal salvation; that you who with your blood have cleansed wretched people from sins, may you with your accustomed mercy free from eternal punishment those who confess to you. OV, BL46, BL52, T4, T6 
26 Responsory: Alleluia erit tanquam lignum quod plantatum est secus decursus aquarum et fructum suum dabit in tempore suo alleluia et folium eius non decidit et omnia quecumque fecerit prosperabuntur alleluia alleluia.VR [L8] Ad odorem aque germinabit et faciet commam [sic] quasi cum primum plantatum est. VR [T4] Quod ad humorem mittit radices suas et non timebit dum venerit estas. REP Secus … Ps. 1:3
[v] Job 14:9
OR Jer. 17:8 
Alleluia. He shall be like a tree that is planted near the running waters, and shall bring forth its fruit, in due season. Alleluia. And his leaf shall not drop: and whatever he shall have made shall prosper. Alleluia, Alleluia. [v] At the scent of water, it shall spring, and bring forth leaves, as when it was first planted. OR [v] that spreads out its roots toward moisture: and it shall not fear when the heat comes. In missa 1: L8, T4.
In missa 2: OV, BL52, BL46, T6. 
27 Oration: Iesu, Deus noster, qui offensam ligni prevaricationis ligno tuae destruis crucis, quum fructus vitae ligni in tempore suo producis: prebe supplicantibus nobis, ut amabile signum Crucis fructus in nobis operetur tuae dulcedinis, et ita horum fructuum ubertas in corde nostro fructificet; ut tuam in resurrectione letabundi mereamur faciem contuere.  Jesus, our God, you destroy the offence of the tree of transgression with the tree of your Cross, since you produce the fruit of the tree of life in due season. Grant our prayers, that the beloved sign of the Cross should bring forth the fruit of your love in us, and thus the fruitfulness of these fruits ripen in our hearts; that joyfully we should deserve to behold your face in Resurrection. In missa 1: T4.
In missa 2: OV, BL52, BL46, T6. 
28 Canticle antiphon: Salvavit michi bracium meum et iustitia mea ipsa auxiliata est mici. Isa. 63:5
Isa. 63:1–6 
My own arm has saved me, and my justice itself hath helped me. Eastertide: BL51 and BN01. 
[Canticle] Quis est iste qui venit. [Canticle] Who is this that comes from Edom, with dyed garments from Bosra, this beautiful one in his robe, walking in the greatness of his strength. I, that speak justice, and am a defender to save. [2] Why then is your apparel red, and your garments like theirs that tread in the winepress? [3] I have trodden the winepress alone, and of the Gentiles there is not a man with me: I have trampled on them in my indignation, and have trodden them down in my wrath, and their blood is sprinkled upon my garments, and I have stained all my apparel. [4] For the day of vengeance is in my heart, the year of my redemption is come. [5] I looked about, and there was none to help: I sought, and there was none to give aid: my own arm has saved me, and my justice itself hath helped me. [6] I have trodden down the people in my wrath, and have made them drunk in my indignation, and have brought down their strength to the earth. Holy Cross and Eastertide: L8, T4, BL46. 
Holy Cross: T6. 
Complete canticle in BL51 (fols. 99v–100r), T4 (fols. 14v–15r), BN01 (fol. 93r). 
Canticle incipit in L8, BL46, T4, T6. 
29 Benedictiones: Supra sedem regni tui domine benedictus es. REP Benedictus es. Dan. 3:54 You are blessed on the seat of your kingdom, Lord. BL46, T4, T6 
[Plus Daniel 3 canticle, probably Daniel 3:26–45 (as included in BN01 and BL51, albeit with a different antiphon, Quaecumque domine, associated with the Daniel canticle in Lent in L8).] 
30 Sono: Alleluia. Torcular calcabi solus et de gentibus non est vir mecum dicit dominus alleluia alleluia.IIAlleluia. Circumspexi et non fuit qui adiubaret alleluia et salvabit mici bracium meum et iustitia mea ipsa auxiliata est mici. Alleluia. Isa. 63:3, 5 I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the nations there is not a man with me, says the Lord. Alleluia, alleluia. [ii] Alleluia. I looked about, and there was none to help. Alleluia. And my own arm has saved me, and my justice itself has helped me. Alleluia. BL46, L8
T4: Sunday after the Easter Octave 
31 Sono: Ego dormivi et quievi et resurrexi quoniam dominus suscitabit me Gloria mea alleluia. II Non timebo milia populi circumdantis me exsurge domine salva me deus meus Gloria mea. Alle[luia]. LDE Alleluia [marginal]. Ps. 3:6–7 I have slept and taken my rest: and I have risen up, because the Lord my glory has roused me. Alleluia. [ii] I will not fear thousands of the people, surrounding me: arise, O Lord; save me, O my God, my glory. Alleluia. Holy Cross and Eastertide: T4, T6.
Eastertide: L8, BL46, T5. 
32 Laudes: Laudate dominum de caelis alleluia. Ps. 148:1 Praise the Lord from the Heavens. Alleluia. BL46 
33 Hymn: Dulce carmen lingua.  [Narrative of the finding of the Cross (edited in Analecta hymnica, 27:90–91).] T6, BL46 
34 Completuria: Ineffabile satis est, Domine, misterium Crucis tuae, quo et mortis potestatem evacuas, et resurrectionis luce coruscas: da ergo in nobis et initia et perfectionem sanctae virtutis; ut, dum predicamus gloriam crucis, ad premium mereamur pertingere inmortalitatis.  It is inexpressible enough, Lord, the mystery of your Cross, by which you purge the power of death, and you are radiant in the light of Resurrection, give therefore the beginnings and perfection of saintly virtue in us; that, while we preach the glory of the Cross, we may deserve to attain the prize of immortality. OV, BL46, BL52, T4, T6 
35 Benedictio: Crux domini nostri Iesu Christi sit sublimitas vestra. Sanguis eius maneat in vos redemtio vera. Resurrectio ipsius sit vobis claritas sempiterna.  May the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ be your exaltation; may his blood remain in you as true redemption; may his Resurrection be your everlasting radiance. OV, BL46, BL52, T6 
ItemChant texts, in manuscript orderaSourceTranslationMSS
Vespertinus: Elevatio manum mearum sacrificium vespertinum. VR Dirigatur domine oratio mea in conspectu tuo sicut incensum. REP Ves[pertinum]. Ps. 140:2 The lifting up of my hands as evening sacrifice. [v] Let my prayer, Lord, be directed as [rep: evening] incense in your sight. L8 (also Sunday In carnes tollendas), T4, T6 (also Ascension) 
Vespertinus: Sicut Christus surgens a mortuis per gloriam patris ambulemus in novitate vite. VR Ipse dominus in iussu arcangeli et in tuba dei descendit de celo et mortui qui in Christo sunt resurgunt primi. REP In nobi[tate vite]. Rom. 6:4
1 Thess. 4:15 
Like Christ rising from the dead by the glory of the Father may we walk in the newness of life. [v] For the Lord himself shall come down from heaven on the commandment of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God: and the dead who are in Christ rise first. L8 (marginal) 
Sono: Dominus Ihesus Christus surrexit a mortuis tertia diȩ et vivit ex virtute dei alleluia.II Salvator noster resurgens a mortuis curvabit morte[m]. Et inluminabit nos vite eternitate. REP Et vivit. Rom. 6:4
2 Cor. 13:4
2 Tim. 1:10 
Lord Jesus Christ rose from the dead on the third day and lives by the power of God. Alleluia. [ii] Our Savior rising from the dead has made death submit and has illuminated us with eternity of life. L8, T4, T6 
Antiphon: Gloriemur in cruce domini nostri Ihesu Christi per quem nobis mundus crucifixus est nosque mundo. VR Dicite in nationibus [dominus regnavit a ligno etenim correxit orbem terre qui non commovebitur]. REP Gloriemur … [Gloria …] REP Per quem … Gal. 6:14
[v] Ps. 95:10 
Let us glory in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom the world was crucified to us, and we to the world. [v] Say ye among the nations, the Lord has reigned on the tree. For he has corrected the world, which shall not be moved. L8, T4, T6 
Alleluiaticus: Pacificabit omnia per sanguinem crucis sue sive que in celis sive que in terris sunt dominus Ihesus Christus quoniam in ipso habitat omnis plenitudo divinitatis corporaliter qui est caput omnis principatus alleluia alleluia.VR Lapidem quem [reprobaverunt aedificantes hic factus est in caput anguli]. REP Qui est caput … [Gloria …] REP Alleluia. Col. 1:20; 2:9–10
[v] Ps. 117:22 
He has pacified all things through the blood of his Cross, both as to the things that are in heaven, and as to the things that are on earth; the Lord Jesus Christ, because in him there dwells all the fullness of the Godhead corporeally, who is the head of all principality. Alleluia, alleluia. [v] The stone that the builders rejected; the same is become the head of the corner. L8, T4, T6 
Hymn (transcribed from T6): Pange linguam [sic] gloriosi prelium … [v] Ps. 95:10 [Cross-themed hymn; full text not given here] L8, T4, T6, BN01 (fol. 138r), BL46 (fol. 70r) 
v2: De parentis protoplausti fraude factor condolens quando pomi noxialis morte morsu corruit ipse lignum tunc notabit damna ligni ut solberet. v2: Eating of the tree forbidden, man had sunk in Satan's snare, when our pitying Creator did this second tree prepare; destined, many ages later, that first evil to repair. 
VR Dominus regnabit a li[gno]. OR [v] Say ye among the nations, the Lord has reigned on the tree. For he hath corrected the world, which shall not be moved: he will judge the people with justice. 
VR Dicite in nationibus dominus regnabit a ligno. 
Psallendum: Regna terre. [incipit only] Ps. 67:33 Kingdoms of the earth, sing to God: sing to the Lord: sing to God, who mounts above the heaven of heavens to the east. L8 
Psallendum: Lapis quem reprobaverunt. [incipit only] Ps. 117:22 The stone that was rejected by the builders; the same is become the head of the corner. T4 
Completuria: Domine Iesu Christe, noster conditor ac redemtor, qui nosti nos cecidisse saucios in delictis: erige nos in virtute et victoria sancte Crucis, da nobis salutis esse premium, quod tibi pro nobis fuit penale supplicium; ut in eo quod tu mortem sustulistis ad mortis victoriam, nos habeamus ad peccatorum veniam et vitam aeternam.  O Lord Jesus Christ, our Creator and Redeemer, who knew that we had fallen down and were wounded in sin: raise us up in the power and victory of the Holy Cross. Grant us to be the reward of salvation, because you took painful punishment for us; so in that which you suffered death for victory over death, we might have forgiveness of sins and eternal life. BL52, T4, T6 
10 Benedictio: Christus [T6: dei filius] dominus, qui pacificavit omnia per sanguinem crucis sue, vera vos vitiorum crucifixione mortificet. Ut, erecti semper in victoriam crucis, devicto perpetim diabulo triumfetis. Quo venerabile Crucis festum devotione promptissima celebrantes, et hic et in aeternum mereamini sine fine esse felices.  May Christ the Lord, who has brought peace to all through the blood of his Cross, mortify you of your sins by his real Crucifixion, so that, always standing upright in the victory of the Cross, you may forever triumph over the devil in his defeat, so that, as you celebrate with ready devotion the venerable feast of the Cross, you may merit to be happy now and forever without end. BL52, T4, T6 
11 Ps. 3 antiphon: Ego dormivi. (Psalm 3 was sung every day, and there are several antiphons beginning “Ego dormivi” for this psalm.) Ps. 3:6 I have slept and taken my rest: and I have risen up, because the Lord has protected me. L8, T4, T6 (also Eastertide) 
12 Antiphon: Christus Ihesus qui cum in forma Dei esset non rapinam arbitratus est esse se equalem deo sed semetipsum exinanibit formam servi accipiens humiliabit se usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis. VR Dominus regnavit a lignoREP Esse se equalem … [Gloria …] REP Esse se equalem … Phil. 2:6–8
[v] Ps. 95:10 
Jesus Christ, who was in the form of God, did not deem it robbery to be equal with God: but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant. He humbled himself unto death, even to death on the Cross. [v] The Lord has reigned on the tree. For he has corrected the world, which shall not be moved. BL52, L8, T4, T6 
13 Oration: Christe Iesu, qui mortalitatis nostre forma suscepta mortis et crucis voluisti sustinere iniuriam: da nobis; ut, Crucis tue munimine circumsepti, devincamus omnes laqueos inimici.  Christ Jesus, who took on the form of our mortality, voluntarily sustained the injustice of the Cross and death: grant us that, having been surrounded by the fortification of your Cross, we may overcome all the snares of the enemy. BL52, T4, T6 
14 Antiphon: Dominus deus patrum nostrorum suscitabit filium suum Ihesum quem vos interemistis clamantes ante faciem Pilati crucifige crucifige. VR Dicite in nati[onibus] … OR VR Quis sicut Dominus Deus noster qui in altis habitat et humilia respicit in caelo et in terra. REP Quem vos … [Gloria …] REP Dominus deus patrum nostrorum … Acts 3:13,
Luke 23:21
[v] Ps. 95:10
OR Ps. 112:5 
Lord God of our fathers hath awakened his Son Jesus, whom you destroyed, crying before the face of Pilate, Crucify, crucify. [v] Say ye among the nations: the Lord has reigned on the tree. For he has corrected the world, which shall not be moved. OR [v] Who is as the Lord our God, who dwells on high: and looks down on the low things in heaven and in earth. BL52, L8, T4, T6 
15 Oration: Deus patrum nostrorum, qui filium tuum interemptum ab impiis supplicio crucis resuscitasti magne gloria potestatis: fac nos; ut ita Crucis tue semper obsequatur volumtas, ut eterna nos ex hoc subsequatur felicitas.  God of our fathers, who by the glory of your great power brought back to life your Son, killed by the impious with the punishment of the Cross: make our will so to be obedient always to thy Cross, that as a result everlasting happiness may obtain for us. BL52, T4, T6 
16 Alleluiaticus: Iuste iudicans peccata nostra portavit in corpore suo super lignum ut a malis separati cum iustitia vivamus cuius vulnere sanati sumus qui sicut oves errabamus alleluia alleluia.VR Quis sicut dominus deus noster … OR VR Sit nomen d[omini] … OR VR Incipite domino … REP Cum iustitia vivamus … [Gloria …] REP Alleluia (final one). 1 Pet. 2:23–25
[v] Ps. 112:5
OR Ps. 112:2
OR Ps. 146:7 
Rightly judging he has borne our sins in his body upon the tree: that we, rescued from sin, should live with justice: by whose wounds we were healed, we who have gone astray like sheep. Alleluia, alleluia. [v] Who is as the Lord our God, who dwelleth on high: and looketh down on the low things in heaven and in earth? OR [v] Blessed be the name of the Lord, from henceforth now and for ever. OR [v] Sing ye to the Lord with praise: sing to our God upon the harp. BL52, L8, T4, T6 (also Sunday after the Easter Octave in all four manuscripts plus OV) 
17 Oration: Iuste quidem, Domine, iudicans peccata nostra in corpore tuo super lignum portasti, quum diabolum non potestate, sed iusticia devicisti; ut qui per debitam mortem nostram servituti eius subiugati eramus, per indebitam mortem tuam ad libertatis gratiam rediremus: fac nos ergo; ut in te semper liberi esse possimus, qualiter tecum et hic et in aeternum sine fine vivamus.  Rightly indeed, Lord, judging did you bear our sins in your body on the tree, when you defeated the devil not by power but by justice, so that we, who had been his subjugated slaves through our deserved death, might return to the grace of freedom through your undeserved death: make us therefore able to be free persons in you always, as we live with you without end, both now and forever. BL46, BL52, L8, T4, T6 
18 Responsory: Ihesum nazarenum quem unxit deus spiritu sancto et virtute quem iudei reppulerunt et occiderunt suspendentes in ligno hunc deus suscitabit post diem tertium et dedit illum manifestum fieri non omni populo sed in nobis praedestinatis ab eo qui cum ipso manducabimus et bivimus et conversati sumus postquam resurrexit alleluia. VRDominus Ihesus Christus qui est testis fidelis primogenitus mortuorum ipse dilexit nos et labit nos a peccatis nostris. REP Postquam. Acts 10:38–41
[v] Apoc. 1:5 
Jesus of Nazareth, whom God anointed with the Holy Ghost, and with power, whom the Jews spurned and killed, hanging him upon a tree, him God raised up after the third day, and gave him to be made manifest, not to all the people, but to us preordained by him, who did eat and drink and talk with him after he was resurrected. Alleluia. [v] Lord Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the first begotten of the dead, he himself has loved us, and washed us from our sins. In missa 1: BL52, BL46, T6.
In missa 2: L8, T4. 
19 Oration: O Iesu Nazarene, qui a iudeis suspensus in ligno magno resurrectionis devicta morte triumfasti miraculo: dignare te manifestum fieri in cordibus nostris; ut, qui post mortem Crucis resurgens tuis es manifestatus discipulis, post vulnera nostre corruptionis tue nos subsequatur munera pietatis.  O Jesus of Nazareth, who was suspended on a great tree by the Jews, you triumphed through the miracle of Resurrection, conquering death: vouchsafe that you should be manifest in our hearts; that, who after death of the Cross, rising, showed yourself to your disciples, after the wounds of our corruption, the gifts of your love should come to us. In missa 1: BL52, BL46, T6.
In missa 2: T4. 
20 Antiphon: In nomine domini omne genu flectatur caelestium terrestrium et infernorum quia dominus obediens usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis ideo dominus Ihesus Christus in gloria est dei patris. VR Omnes gentes [plaudete manibus]. OR VR Audite hec … REP Quia dominus obediens … [Gloria …] REP In gloria est dei patris. Phil. 2:10, 8, 11
[v] Ps. 46:2
OR Ps. 48:2 
In the name of the Lord every knee should bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and in hell. Because the Lord becoming obedient unto death, even to the death of the Cross, therefore the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father. [v] O clap your hands, all ye nations: shout unto God with the voice of Joy. OR [v] Hear these things, all ye nations: give ear, all ye inhabitants of the world. OV, BL46, BL52, L8, T4, T6 
21 Oration: Christe, Dei filius, in cuius nomine per Crucis misterium omne flectitur genu: da nobis in cruce tua copiosius exultare; ut in eius victoria et inlesi mare seculi transeamus, et ad te coronaturi post nostrum transitum accedamus.  Christ, the Son of God, in whose name by the mystery of the Cross every knee should bow, grant us to exult copiously in your Cross; that in his victory we may pass unharmed over the sea of this world, and may come to you for crowning after our passage. OV, BL46, BL52, T4, T6 
22 Antiphon: Redemisti nos domine sanguine tuo ex omni tribu et lingua et fecisti nos regnum deo nostro. VR Confiteantur tibi populi [confiteantur]. REP Ex omni tribu … [Gloria …] REP Regnum deo nostro. Apoc. 5:9–10
[v] Ps. 66:4 
You have redeemed us, Lord, in your blood, out of every tribe, and tongue. And hast made us to our God a kingdom. [v] Let people confess to thee, O God: let all people give praise to thee. OV, BL46, BL52, L8, T4, T6 
23 Oration: Redemtor noster et domine, qui nos olim redemisti per sanguinem Crucis tuae: redime nos a perpetuae mortis condicione; ut in cruce tua, et victoriam de vitiis capiamus, et aeterno post mortem de munere consolemur.  Our Redeemer and Lord, you who redeemed us once by the blood of your Cross: redeem us from the condition of perpetual death; that in your Cross we might seize victory over sin, and may be comforted with the eternal gift after death. OV, BL46, BL52, T4, T6 
24 Alleluiaticus: Testis fidelis primogenitus mortuorum et princeps regum terre dilexit nos et labit nos a peccatis nostris sanguine suo alleluia alleluia.VRQuis sicut [dominus …] OR VR Qui sanat con[tritos …] REP Dilexit nos … [Gloria …] REP Alleluia (final one). Apoc. 1:5
[v] Ps. 112:5
OR Ps. 146:3 
The faithful witness, the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth has loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood. Alleluia, alleluia. [v] Who is as the Lord our God, who dwells on high, and looks down on the low things in heaven and in earth? OR [v] Who heals the broken of heart, and binds up their bruises. OV, BL46, BL52, L8, T4, T6 
25 Oration: Iesu Dei filius, testis fidelis, primogenitus mortuorum: presta, ut testimonium crucis sit nobis ad emolumentum aeternae salvationis; ut, qui sanguine tuo lavasti miseros a peccatis, misericordia consueta confitentes tibi liberes ab aeternis suppliciis.  Jesus, the Son of God, faithful witness, the first begotten of the dead: grant that the testimony of the Cross be to us the benefit of eternal salvation; that you who with your blood have cleansed wretched people from sins, may you with your accustomed mercy free from eternal punishment those who confess to you. OV, BL46, BL52, T4, T6 
26 Responsory: Alleluia erit tanquam lignum quod plantatum est secus decursus aquarum et fructum suum dabit in tempore suo alleluia et folium eius non decidit et omnia quecumque fecerit prosperabuntur alleluia alleluia.VR [L8] Ad odorem aque germinabit et faciet commam [sic] quasi cum primum plantatum est. VR [T4] Quod ad humorem mittit radices suas et non timebit dum venerit estas. REP Secus … Ps. 1:3
[v] Job 14:9
OR Jer. 17:8 
Alleluia. He shall be like a tree that is planted near the running waters, and shall bring forth its fruit, in due season. Alleluia. And his leaf shall not drop: and whatever he shall have made shall prosper. Alleluia, Alleluia. [v] At the scent of water, it shall spring, and bring forth leaves, as when it was first planted. OR [v] that spreads out its roots toward moisture: and it shall not fear when the heat comes. In missa 1: L8, T4.
In missa 2: OV, BL52, BL46, T6. 
27 Oration: Iesu, Deus noster, qui offensam ligni prevaricationis ligno tuae destruis crucis, quum fructus vitae ligni in tempore suo producis: prebe supplicantibus nobis, ut amabile signum Crucis fructus in nobis operetur tuae dulcedinis, et ita horum fructuum ubertas in corde nostro fructificet; ut tuam in resurrectione letabundi mereamur faciem contuere.  Jesus, our God, you destroy the offence of the tree of transgression with the tree of your Cross, since you produce the fruit of the tree of life in due season. Grant our prayers, that the beloved sign of the Cross should bring forth the fruit of your love in us, and thus the fruitfulness of these fruits ripen in our hearts; that joyfully we should deserve to behold your face in Resurrection. In missa 1: T4.
In missa 2: OV, BL52, BL46, T6. 
28 Canticle antiphon: Salvavit michi bracium meum et iustitia mea ipsa auxiliata est mici. Isa. 63:5
Isa. 63:1–6 
My own arm has saved me, and my justice itself hath helped me. Eastertide: BL51 and BN01. 
[Canticle] Quis est iste qui venit. [Canticle] Who is this that comes from Edom, with dyed garments from Bosra, this beautiful one in his robe, walking in the greatness of his strength. I, that speak justice, and am a defender to save. [2] Why then is your apparel red, and your garments like theirs that tread in the winepress? [3] I have trodden the winepress alone, and of the Gentiles there is not a man with me: I have trampled on them in my indignation, and have trodden them down in my wrath, and their blood is sprinkled upon my garments, and I have stained all my apparel. [4] For the day of vengeance is in my heart, the year of my redemption is come. [5] I looked about, and there was none to help: I sought, and there was none to give aid: my own arm has saved me, and my justice itself hath helped me. [6] I have trodden down the people in my wrath, and have made them drunk in my indignation, and have brought down their strength to the earth. Holy Cross and Eastertide: L8, T4, BL46. 
Holy Cross: T6. 
Complete canticle in BL51 (fols. 99v–100r), T4 (fols. 14v–15r), BN01 (fol. 93r). 
Canticle incipit in L8, BL46, T4, T6. 
29 Benedictiones: Supra sedem regni tui domine benedictus es. REP Benedictus es. Dan. 3:54 You are blessed on the seat of your kingdom, Lord. BL46, T4, T6 
[Plus Daniel 3 canticle, probably Daniel 3:26–45 (as included in BN01 and BL51, albeit with a different antiphon, Quaecumque domine, associated with the Daniel canticle in Lent in L8).] 
30 Sono: Alleluia. Torcular calcabi solus et de gentibus non est vir mecum dicit dominus alleluia alleluia.IIAlleluia. Circumspexi et non fuit qui adiubaret alleluia et salvabit mici bracium meum et iustitia mea ipsa auxiliata est mici. Alleluia. Isa. 63:3, 5 I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the nations there is not a man with me, says the Lord. Alleluia, alleluia. [ii] Alleluia. I looked about, and there was none to help. Alleluia. And my own arm has saved me, and my justice itself has helped me. Alleluia. BL46, L8
T4: Sunday after the Easter Octave 
31 Sono: Ego dormivi et quievi et resurrexi quoniam dominus suscitabit me Gloria mea alleluia. II Non timebo milia populi circumdantis me exsurge domine salva me deus meus Gloria mea. Alle[luia]. LDE Alleluia [marginal]. Ps. 3:6–7 I have slept and taken my rest: and I have risen up, because the Lord my glory has roused me. Alleluia. [ii] I will not fear thousands of the people, surrounding me: arise, O Lord; save me, O my God, my glory. Alleluia. Holy Cross and Eastertide: T4, T6.
Eastertide: L8, BL46, T5. 
32 Laudes: Laudate dominum de caelis alleluia. Ps. 148:1 Praise the Lord from the Heavens. Alleluia. BL46 
33 Hymn: Dulce carmen lingua.  [Narrative of the finding of the Cross (edited in Analecta hymnica, 27:90–91).] T6, BL46 
34 Completuria: Ineffabile satis est, Domine, misterium Crucis tuae, quo et mortis potestatem evacuas, et resurrectionis luce coruscas: da ergo in nobis et initia et perfectionem sanctae virtutis; ut, dum predicamus gloriam crucis, ad premium mereamur pertingere inmortalitatis.  It is inexpressible enough, Lord, the mystery of your Cross, by which you purge the power of death, and you are radiant in the light of Resurrection, give therefore the beginnings and perfection of saintly virtue in us; that, while we preach the glory of the Cross, we may deserve to attain the prize of immortality. OV, BL46, BL52, T4, T6 
35 Benedictio: Crux domini nostri Iesu Christi sit sublimitas vestra. Sanguis eius maneat in vos redemtio vera. Resurrectio ipsius sit vobis claritas sempiterna.  May the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ be your exaltation; may his blood remain in you as true redemption; may his Resurrection be your everlasting radiance. OV, BL46, BL52, T6 
a

Chant texts follow the orthography in Brou and Vives, Antifonario visigótico mozárabe, 325–28. Prayer texts follow the orthography in Vives, Oracional visigótico. (Note the typical—though inconsistent—Iberian transposition of “b” and “v.”) Boldface indicates departures from the biblical text as preserved in the Toledo Bible.

Notes

Notes
For their advice and suggestions I am grateful to Rebecca Maloy, Gillian Clark, Margot Fassler, the Old Hispanic Office project team (Elsa De Luca, Litha Efthymiou, Kati Ihnat, and Raquel Rojo Carrillo), David Fay, and participants in Bristol University Music Department's postgraduate reading group, in the Music and Theology Seminar, Worcester College, Oxford, May 2015, and in the “Sense of Liturgy” conference at Bristol University, April 2015, as well as the anonymous reviewers for this Journal.
1.
For the sigla of chant manuscripts cited in this article, see  Appendix 1. On repertorial continuities between OV and later manuscripts, see Brou, “L'antiphonaire wisigothique.”
2.
For a recent summary and bibliography, see Bower, “Transmission.”
3.
For general introductions, see Stapert, New Song, and Page, Christian West, ch. 2.
4.
See Pellegrino, “Le ‘Confessioni,’” and Lawson, “Sources.” On the importance of Augustine to Isidore, see Fontaine, “Théorie et pratique,” 66ff. On Augustine's influence in early medieval Iberia, see Díaz y Díaz, “Agustín entre los mozárabes”; Ramis Miquel, “Fuentes agustinianas”; Domínguez del Val, “La utilización de los Padres”; Rubio, “Presencia de San Agustín”; and Martín-Iglesias, “La biblioteca cristiana.”
5.
Fols. 172, 200. See Brou, “Problèmes liturgiques,” and Pérez de Urbel, San Isidoro de Sevilla, 150ff. On the dating of L8, see most recently Elsa De Luca, “Musical Cryptography.”
6.
See Stocking, Bishops, Councils, and Consensus, 170.
7.
Lawson lists Visigothic manuscripts that preserve De ecclesiasticis officiis and cites further evidence for Visigothic knowledge of the treatise: Isidore of Seville, De ecclesiasticis officiis, 33*, 133*–34*. Cazier describes two Iberian manuscripts containing this text, Escorial, T.II.25 (ninth century), and Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, 10067 (tenth century): Isidore of Seville, Sententiae, lxxiv–lxxv. Almost a thousand manuscript copies of Isidore's Etymologiae survive. Many use Visigothic script, including Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, 10008 (eleventh century), and Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia, 76 (tenth century) and 25 (dated 946).
8.
For this term, see Zon, “Bedazzled by Breakthrough.”
9.
See McKinnon, “Preface,” 214–18; McKinnon, “Patristic Jubilus”; and Wiora, “Jubilare sine verbis.”
10.
See note 9 above; Moneta Caglio, Lo jubilus, 5–7 (Augustine's psalm commentaries); and Maloy, “Old Hispanic Chant,” 6–9 (Augustine's sermons).
11.
See, for example, Gregory the Great, Moralia in Iob 8.88: “Iubilum uero dicimus cum tantam laetitiam corde concipimus, quantam sermonis efficacia non explemus; et tamen mentis exsultatio hoc quod sermone non explicat, uoce sonat” (But we call it “jubilus” when we feel so much joy in our hearts that it cannot be expressed by the perfection of speech; and yet the exultation of the mind utters in voice what it cannot express in words); ibid., 28.35: “Iubilatio quippe dicitur cum cordis laetitia oris efficacia non expletur, sed quibusdam modis gaudium prodit, quod ipse qui gaudet, nec tegere praeualet, nec explere. Laudent itaque angeli, qui iam tantae claritatis latitudinem in sublimibus uident. Iubilent uero homines, qui adhuc in inferioribus oris sui angustias sustinent” (It is called “jubilatio,” of course, when the joy of the heart is not fully expressed by the perfection of the voice, but it reveals in some ways the joy that he who rejoices can neither hide, nor express. Therefore let angels praise, who already see the breadth of such great brightness in His high places. Let us men jubilate, however, who still endure the constraints of speech down on earth); Leander of Seville, Homilia in laudem ecclesiae (no section numbers): “jubila exsultatione; quoniam tui moerores in gaudium sunt mutati, tristitiae habitum in amictum laetitiae versum est” (jubilate with exultation, because your sorrows have been changed to joy, your habit of sadness has become a cloak of rejoicing); and ibid.: “Ergo, fratres, tota charitate animi exsultemus in Domino, et jubilemus Deo salutari nostro” (Therefore, brothers, let us exult in the Lord with all the love of our soul, and jubilate to God our Savior). Similar examples appear in writings by Julian of Toledo and Ildefonsus of Toledo. Translations in this article are mine unless otherwise indicated.
12.
See, for example, Augustine, Sermones 336.3 (“In dedicatione ecclesiae”): “Proponitur dedicatio, et cantatur liberatio: jubilatur canticum dedicationis domus, et dicitur Exaltabo te, Domine, quoniam suscepisti me [Ps. 29:2]” (The dedication is set before us, and liberation is sung; the song of the dedication of the house is jubilated, and it is said, “I will extol you, O Lord, for you have upheld me”). See also Augustine, Enarrationes in psalmos 18, enarratio 2, sermo 1; 32, enarratio 2, sermo 1.8; and 99, sermo 4.
13.
In Tables 13 shared text is marked in boldface. Bracketed numbers indicate the parallel passages.
14.
See Maloy, “Old Hispanic Chant,” 7–9.
15.
See McKinnon, “Preface”; McKinnon, “Patristic Jubilus,” 69; and Wiora, “Jubilare sine verbis.” Iversen explores the association of the jubilus with the alleluia melisma from Amalar of Metz onward: Iverson, Chanter avec les anges, 145–75; see also Haug, “Melisma.”
16.
The five senses are synthesized in Confessions 10.54. On music's potential for distraction, see Blackwell, Sacred in Music, 128–29; Quasten, Music and Worship, 94–99; and Harrison, Beauty and Revelation, 170–71. On Platonic anxiety about music's relationship with the emotions, see Begbie, Resounding Truth, 81–82.
17.
Following 1 Corinthians 14:15 (uniting heart and voice in song), see, for example, Augustine, Confessionum 9.7.15; the Benedictine Rule, ch. 4; Niceta of Remesiana, De utilitate hymnorum (McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, 135); and Isidore of Seville, Sententiae 3.7.30, De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.14.1, and Regula monachorum 6.2.
18.
Understanding has primacy even in Augustine's discussion of the jubilus in Enarrationes in psalmos 99, sermo 3: “Sonus enim cordis intellectus est” (For this sound [the jubilus] is the comprehension of the heart). My thanks to Jeremy Llewellyn for drawing my attention to this detail.
19.
Díaz y Díaz, Manuscritos visigóticos, 174n565, refers to a (now lost) sixth-century Iberian manuscript preserved until 1936 at the Monasterio de la Encarnación in Madrid. Part of a folio is reproduced in Lowe, Codices latini antiquiores, vol. 11, no. 1640.
20.
See Pellegrino, “Le ‘Confessioni,’” 251. There is also direct quotation from Augustine's Epistolarum in De ecclesiasticis officiis 1.6.1, where the “inflaming” idea draws on Confessions 9.4.8. For other influences on Isidore's musical thought, especially Cassiodorus, see Fontaine, Isidore de Seville, 413–40, and Bower, “Transmission.”
21.
Agobard of Lyon, De antiphonario.
22.
As well as “Nunc … adquiesco” and “ipsis sanctis … cantarentur,” Agobard quotes in full from “Tutiusque mihi uidetur” to “non audire cantantem,” omitting only “Ita fluctuo inter periculum uoluptatis et experimentum salubritatis.”
23.
See Isidore of Seville, De ecclesiasticis officiis 2.11–12.
24.
“Monachi operantes meditari aut psallere debent, ut carminis verbique Dei delectatione consolentur ipsum laborem. … Laborandum est enim corpore animi fixa in Deum intentione; sicque manus in opere implicanda est ut mens non avertatur a Deo.” Unpublished translation by Neil Allies.
25.
“Verum in vigiliis recitandi aderit usus; in matutinis psallendi canendique consuetudo, ut utroque modo servorum Dei mentes diversitatis oblectamento exerceantur, et ad laudem Dei sine fastidio affluentius excitentur.” Unpublished translation by Neil Allies.
26.
Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae 3.16.1–3: “Musica movet affectus, provocat in diversum habitum sensus. In praeliis quoque tubae concentus pugnantes accendit; et quanto vehementior fuerit clangor, tanto fit fortior ad certamen animus. Siquidem et remiges cantus hortatur. Ad tolerandos quoque labores musica animum mulcet, et singulorum operum fatigationem modulatio vocis solatur. Excitos quoque animos musica sedat, sicut legitur de David, qui a spiritu immundo Saulem arte modulationis eripuit” (Music rouses emotions, and it calls the senses to a different state. In battle, too, the sounding of the trumpet inflames the fighters, and the more ardent its blast, the braver grows the spirit for the contest. Since song urges even rowers on, music also soothes the spirit so that it can endure toil, and the modulation of the voice eases exhaustion from individual labors. Music also calms excited spirits, just as one reads about David, who rescued Saul from the unclean spirit by the art of modulation). Translated in Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, 95.
27.
See Holsinger, Music, Body, and Desire, ch. 2.
28.
For an extended discussion, see Begbie, Theology, Music and Time, and Blackwell, Sacred in Music, ch. 6.
29.
For a firsthand account of stroke-induced ecstasy in the “present moment,” see Taylor, My Stroke of Insight.
30.
Augustine, Confessionum 11.28.38: “Dicturus sum canticum, quod noui: antequam incipiam, in totum expectatio mea tenditur, cum autem coepero, quantum ex illa in praeteritum decerpsero, tenditur et memoria mea, atque distenditur uita huius actionis meae in memoriam propter quod dixi et in expectationem propter quod dicturus sum: praesens tamen adest attentio mea, per quam traicitur quod erat futurum, ut fiat praeteritum.” Translated in Nightingale, Once out of Nature, 89.
31.
See Clark, “Psallite sapienter,” 177, and Nightingale, Once out of Nature, 16.
32.
See Nightingale, Once out of Nature, 82–91. On Augustine's difficulty with giving “validity to the present,” see Begbie, Theology, Music and Time, 64.
33.
See Begbie, Theology, Music and Time, 84; O'Connell, Art and the Christian Intelligence, 94–95; and Harrison, “Enchanting the Soul,” 212.
34.
Augustine, Confessionum 11.29.39: “mediatore filio hominis inter te unum et nos multos, in multis per multa, ut per eum apprehendam, in quo et apprehensus sum, et a ueteribus diebus conligar sequens unum, praeterita oblitus, non in ea quae futura et transitura sunt, sed in ea quae ante sunt non distentus, sed extentus, non secundum distentionem, sed secundam intentionem.” Translated in Augustine, Confessions, 244.
35.
Augustine, Enarrationes in psalmos 41.9; the quoted phrase is from Carruthers, “Concept of ductus,” 195. See also Cassiodorus, Expositio psalmorum 97.9, conclusio. Later, Amalar of Metz understood the (textless) sequence as journeying to “a higher level of contemplation”; see Bower, “From Alleluia to Sequence,” 367.
36.
See Clark, “Psallite sapienter,” 178.
37.
Augustine, Confessionum 10.6.8: “Quid autem amo, cum te amo? Non speciem corporis nec decus temporis, non candorem lucis ecce istis amicum oculis, non dulces melodias cantilenarum omnimodarum, non florum et unguentorum et aromatum suauiolentiam, non manna et mella, non membra acceptabilia carnis amplexibus: non haec amo, cum amo deum meum. Et tamen amo quandam lucem et quandam uocem et quendam odorem et quendam cibum et quendam amplexum, cum amo deum meum, lucem, uocem, odorem, cibum, amplexum interioris hominis mei, ubi fulget animae meae, quod non capit locus, et ubi sonat, quod non rapit tempus, et ubi olet, quod non spargit flatus, et ubi sapit, quod non minuit edacitas, et ubi haeret, quod non diuellit satietas.” Translated in Augustine, Confessions, 183.
38.
See Stock, Augustine the Reader, 211ff.; Burton, Language in the “Confessions,” 149; and Harrison, Beauty and Revelation, 25.
39.
On Isidore and conversion, see Drews, Unknown Neighbour, 106–11, and Wood, Politics of Identity, ch. 5.
40.
Adoptionists believe that Jesus was adopted into the Godhead rather than being divine from the outset. This belief has been regarded as heretical by Trinitarian Christians since the second century; it had some currency in eighth- and ninth-century Spain. For a dating of the L8 prologues to the eighth century on linguistic grounds, see Gil, “El latín del Antifonario”; see also Díaz y Díaz, “Some Incidental Notes.” Zapke, “En torno a las nociones,” prefers an eleventh-century dating.
41.
See Page, Christian West, 240–42. On Isidore's avoidance of excess in monastic life and liturgy, see Fontaine, “Théorie et pratique,” 86–87.
42.
Cf. Isidore of Seville, Etimologias 6.19.7–8.
43.
See Wood, “Brevitas.”
44.
See Tomlinson, “Web of Culture.” On textual communities, see Stock, Listening for the Text, ch. 7.
45.
See Pinell, “Las ‘Missae,’” and (for briefer discussions) Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning, 37–40; Zapke, El antifonario, 143; and Huglo, “Les chants liturgiques.” Within ad matutinum (the dawn office), a missa comprises two antiphons, an alleluiaticus (alleluiatic antiphon), and a responsory, each followed by an oration.
46.
Rankin, “Beyond the Boundaries,” discusses a series of “Ecce” Advent antiphons in an early “Irish” or “Gallican” manuscript. The association of “Ecce” with Advent was evidently in circulation before the Carolingian imposition of Franco-Roman chant. There are no textual overlaps with the Old Hispanic series.
47.
All but one of the prayers refer directly to Saint Cucuphas: completuria and benedictio in T6 (vespers and ad matutinum) and BL45 (vespers); one missa of ad matutinum orations (T6).
48.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, n.a.l. 2179 (fol. 234v onward), marks up the vita into sections for liturgical reading. For an edition of the vita, see Fábrega Grau, Pasionario hispánico, 2:309–14.
49.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, n.a.l. 2179, has marginal identification of four as orations.
50.
See Pinell, “El oficio hispano-visigótico,” 393–94.
51.
Ninth- to eleventh-century Visigothic manuscripts containing Moralia include Barcelona, Biblioteca de Catalunya, no shelfmark (one folio); Burgo de Osma, Biblioteca de la Catedral, 117; León, Archivo Histórico Diocesano, Fondo M. Bravo, núm. 1; Madrid, Archivo Histórico Nacional, fragment 7; Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, 80; and Toledo, Biblioteca Capitular, 11.4. See Millares Carlo, Manuscritos visigóticos.
52.
See Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning, 47–49, 90 (on Gregory); 171, 181–82, 207–9 (on Augustine); also 41–45 (with references to previous scholarship).
53.
T6 assigns the Invention as a mass reading (fols. 70r–79r). It appears without liturgical rubrics in the passionaria; see Fábrega Grau, Pasionario hispánico, 2:260–66. The narrative is also evoked in the hymn Dulce carmen lingua (see  Appendix 2, item 33).
54.
See  Appendix 2, items 4–6, 12, 14, 18, 20, 23, 25. Psalm 95:10 is frequently altered in Iberian psalters (including BL51 and BN01) to read “Dominus regnavit a ligno,” giving the text a Cross-related interpretation.
55.
See, for example, Augustine, Sermones de vetere testamento 40.3, and Cassiodorus, Expositio psalmorum 1.3.
56.
Ambrose of Milan, Explanatio psalmorum 1, enarratio 35: “Lignum vitae est omnibus percipientibus eum. Qui ergo beatus est, imitator erit Domini Jesu, qui est lignum vitae, lignum sapientiae, plantatum in utero Virginis, voluntate Patris, a quo in perpetuum mansurum plantatur, ut fructum daret in tempore suo” (“He is a tree of life to all who receive him” [Prov. 3:18]. He therefore who is blessed models himself on the Lord Jesus, who is the living tree, the wise tree, planted in the womb of the Virgin by the will of the Father; by whom it will remain forever planted, that he might bring forth fruit in due season).
57.
See, for example, Hilary of Poitiers, Tractatus super psalmos 131.8; Ambrose of Milan, Hexameron 6.10; Augustine, In Iohannis evangelium tractatus 47.7; and Ildefonsus of Toledo, De virginitate Sanctae Mariae, 209.
58.
See, for example, Augustine, De Genesi 2.24; Augustine, Enarrationes in psalmos 3.5; Ambrose of Milan, De Tobia 1.20.73; and Isidore of Seville, De fide catholica 1.53.
59.
“Patitur Christus in cruce, pungitur latus lancea, et profluunt sacramenta sanguinis, ex quibus formetur Ecclesia. Hanc dormitionem cantat Propheta, dicens: Ego dormivi, et quievi, et resurrexi, quoniam Dominus suscitavit me (Psalm. III, 6)” (Christ suffered on the Cross, his side was pierced by a spear, and the sacrament of blood flowed forth, from which the church is formed. Of this sleep the prophet sings, saying, “I laid me down, and I remained quiet, and I rose, for the Lord waked me” (Ps. 3:6)).
60.
In Augustine, Enarrationes in psalmos 101, sermo 1.8, the pelican symbolizes Christ's birth, the owl his death (with reference to Psalm 3:6), the sparrow his Ascension, and the turtle dove the nest made for the church from the wood of the Cross.
61.
Jerome, Commentariorum in Esaiam 4.10.33–34; Jerome, Tractatus sive homiliae in psalmos, Ps. 143:15; Jerome, Commentariorum in Osee prophetam 2.9.10.
62.
Gregory the Great, Homiliarum in Ezechielem prophetam 2.1.9: “Hoc autem vestimentum illius longe ante Isaias aspiciens per crucem passionis sanguine cruentatum, dixit: Quare rubrum est indumentum tuum, et vestimenta tua quasi calcantium in torculari? (Isai. LXIII, 2). Cui ipse respondit: Torcular calcavi solus, et de gentibus non est vir mecum (ibid., 3). Solus enim torcular in quo calcatus est calcavit, qui sua potentia eam quam pertulit passionem vicit. Nam qui usque ad mortem crucis passus est, de morte cum gloria surrexit” (But this is the garment of him who, long before Isaiah, looked through the bloody Cross of suffering, and said, “Why have you red in your apparel, and your garments like him who treads in the winepress?” (Isa. 63:2). To whom he answered, “I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me” (Isa. 63:3). For he alone trod the winepress in which he was trodden, who with his own power overcame the suffering that he bore. For he who suffered even to death on the Cross arose from death with glory).
63.
On Visigothic uses of Gregory's writings, see Martín-Iglesias, “La biblioteca cristiana,” 268–69. Tenth-century Iberian manuscripts containing Gregory's Homiliarum in Ezechielem prophetam include Toledo, Biblioteca Capitular, 9.6, and Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia, 38.
64.
Isidore of Seville, Appendix ad libros regum 20: “Is, qui in divino versatur officio, omnia gesta ejus, dictaque ad orationem reputantur, quia justus sine intermissione quae justa sunt agit. Propter hoc sine intermissione justus orabit. Et in Psalmis dicit: Elevatio manuum mearum sacrificium vespertinum” (He who is employed in the divine office, all his words and deeds are counted as prayer, because the just man does just works without ceasing. Because of this, the just shall pray without ceasing. And in the Psalms he says, “The lifting up of my hands be like the evening sacrifice”). See also Regula monastica communis, ch. 10. For a late antique precedent, see Cassiodorus, Expositio psalmorum 140.2.
65.
See, for example, Augustine, Enarrationes in psalmos 64, sermo 6; Augustine, Sermones 342.1 (“De sacrificio vespertino”); Gregory the Great, Moralia in Iob 20.2; and Isidore of Seville, De fide catholica 1.35.2.
66.
Only twenty-one chants, mostly antiphons, have been preserved in heighted Aquitanian neumes; these have been edited in Rojo and Prado, El canto mozárabe.
67.
See, for example, Rankin, “Carolingian Music,” 283; Fassler, Virgin of Chartres, 125–26; and Crocker, Introduction to Gregorian Chant, 184.
68.
See, for example, Rankin, “Carolingian Music.”
69.
Brou made penetrating studies of several genres, among the most important of which are “Le psallendum,” “Les ‘benedictiones,’” and “L'alleluia.” Randel's seminal Responsorial Psalm Tones and “Responsorial Psalmody” focus on various responsorial genres. Zapke, El antifonario, is based on one fragment, with necessarily limited engagement with melodic style across the wider corpus. Cullin interpreted Old Hispanic formal structures and melodies through the lens of a theory of melodic evolution that has not found universal approval: see his “De la psalmodie,” “Le répertoire,” and “Richesse et diversité.”
70.
Exceptions are Nadeau, “Pro sonorum diversitate”; Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning; and Maloy, “Old Hispanic Chant.”
71.
See, for example, Rankin, “Carolingian Music”; Treitler, With Voice and Pen, 441–54, 461–80; Desmond, “Sicut in grammatica”; and Bower, “Grammatical Model.”
72.
Isaiah 21:8: “Et clamavit leo: Super speculam Domini ego sum, stans jugiter per diem; et super custodiam meam ego sum, stans totis noctibus”: Biblioteca Nacional de España, MS Vitr/13/1 [Biblia hispalense], fol. 110r (And a lion cried out: I am upon the watchtower of the Lord, standing continually by day: and I am upon my ward, standing whole nights).
73.
“N” refers to a note whose pitch relative to the previous note is unknown; “H” is higher than, “L” is lower than, and “S” is the same as the previous note; “+” shows the division between syllables. It is very common for BL45 to have no neume when other manuscripts have a single note on a syllable.
74.
Across all ninth- to eleventh-century manuscripts it appears in the responsories 162 times, including 77 cadences on “domi-,” and in the sacrificia 48 times, including 19 cadences on “domi-.” On the melodic dialects of Old Hispanic chant, see Randel, Responsorial Psalm Tones, and, most recently, Hornby and Maloy, “Melodic Dialects.”
75.
This neume combination appears, for example, in L8: at the end of the responsories Animam meam (fol. 146r), Iniquitates nostrae (fol. 119v), and Exurge domine miserere (fol. 116v); at the end of a sentence in the alleluiaticus Dignus est agnus (fol. 185v); at the end of a clause in the antiphon Benedictus dominus qui (fol. 273v) and the responsory Conclusit vias (fol. 155v); and before a prepositional phrase in the responsory Quare persequimini (fol. 147v). The neume forms of BL45 appear at the end of the verse in the vespertinus Exortum est in BL45 (fol. 8r). The two manuscripts have this cadence, each with their characteristic forms of the neumes, at the end of a clause in the antiphon Ne timeas (L8, fol. 212r; BL45, fol. 13v) and the alleluiaticus Gloria iustorum timor (BL45, fol. 9v; L8, fol. 273v), and before a prepositional phrase in the sacrificium Sacerdos zacharias (BL45, fol. 21v; L8, fol. 212v).
76.
This neume combination is used, for example, before a prepositional phrase in the vespertinus Conserva me domine (L8, fol. 140r) and the responsory Habundaverunt (L8, fol. 118v); and before a conjunction in the sono Custodi me domine (BL51, fol. 202v; L8, fol. 282r; PB99, fol. 15r; S6, fol. 60r).
77.
This neume combination appears as a cadence in L8 in, for example, the responsories Ecce vir impius graditur (fol. 135r), Induta est caro mea (fol. 115v), and Habitatores Iherusalem (fol. 159v).
78.
The pattern is seen in L8 responsories—for example, before a prepositional phrase in Haec dicit dominus prevaricati sunt (fol. 137v) and Habitatores (fol. 159v); before a genitive in Domine deus noster (fol. 293r); and at the end of a sentence in Domine tu cognovisti (fol. 272v).
79.
In L8, for example, the same neumes end the responsory Doctrina domini (fol. 161v) and the antiphon Dabit vobis dominus requiem (fol. 278v).
80.
On the question of whether a whole psalm or a just single verse was sung, see Brou, “Le joyau,” 97–101, and Pinell, “El oficio hispano-visigótico,” 412–19.
81.
See Nadeau, “Pro sonorum diversitate,” 88–89, 120–22. Nadeau mentions that the repetenda texts “do not always flow smoothly from the verse,” bringing to mind Carolingian anxiety about the same phenomenon in the Franco-Roman repertory. On the dangers of heresy arising from the reordering and combining of biblical texts, see Levy, “Abbot Helisacher's Antiphoner,” and Agobard of Lyon, De antiphonario.
82.
See Nadeau, “Pro sonorum diversitate,” 184–85.
83.
The same phenomenon occurs in the same chant in T4 (fol. 47r) and BL45 (fol. 34r).
84.
Leonard Meyer first articulated the idea that musical meaning arises from the confounding of musical expectations; see Meyer, Emotion and Meaning.
85.
Pioneering studies using this approach are Fassler, Gothic Song, and Flynn, Medieval Music. See also Hornby, Medieval Liturgical Chant, and, with direct reference to the Old Hispanic material, Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning.
86.
See Hornby, Medieval Liturgical Chant, ch. 4.
87.
For analyses, see Hornby and Maloy, Music and Meaning.
88.
See, for example, McAlpine, Tonal Consciousness.
89.
On “road maps” of cadential goal pitches, see Helsen, “Great Responsories.” There is extensive discussion of repeated Old Hispanic melodic material in Nadeau, “Pro sonorum diversitate,” 125–63.
90.
Alleluiaticus Ego quasi (fol. 44v); responsory Timor (fol. 113v); psalmus Ecce quam bonum (fol. 131r); antiphon Peccatores tetenderunt (fol. 136v); antiphon Vana locuti sunt (fol. 136v); responsory Felix (fol. 225v); responsory Dabo sanctis (fol. 239r); antiphon Brebes anni mei (fol. 277v); psalmus Tu nosti (verse; fol. 278r); antiphon Quis enarrabit (fol. 284r); responsory Delicta (fol. 294v); and psalmus Delicta (fol. 300v).
91.
A30: alleluiaticus Ego quasi (fol. 53v); S3: psalmus Delicta (fol. 161v, with one extra note); S4: psalmus Delicta (fol. 263r); S6: antiphon Quis enarrabit (fol. 60v). This particular shape may have fallen out of use by the twelfth century: it does not appear in the cognate chants in the Toledan manuscripts T4, T5, and BN10.
92.
Fols. 41v, 262r, 272r.
93.
Haec dicit dominus in indignatione (antiphon; L8), Haec dicit dominus si custodieritis (responsory; L8, S6), Haec dicit dominus prevaricati sunt (responsory; L8), and Haec dicit dominus non cessabo (responsory; L8, S3, S6, T4). Ecce vir impius is preserved in L8, fol. 135r, and BL52, 48v.
94.
My provision of note counts in the following discussion does not imply that medieval cantors necessarily conceptualized these melodic gestures as separate notes; nor does it indicate that I am always certain as to exactly how many notes are involved in each neume. Note counts are provided solely to give a relative sense of melodic flow.
95.
See Nadeau, “Pro sonorum diversitate,” 10.
96.
See Fassler, Virgin of Chartres, 126.
97.
See  Appendix 2, items 4, 5, 12, 20, 22. The single ten-note melisma before the final alleluias in item 16 is a very common (and hence commonplace) formulaic pattern.
98.
On anti-Jewish texts in this feast, see Tongeren, Exaltation of the Cross, 272–73.
99.
On the anti-Arian assignment to Christ of the epithets “redemptor,” “creator,” and “salvator,” see ibid., 263–64.
100.
My thanks to Gillian Clark for sharing this reading of Confessions 10.33.49 with me.
101.
See Brou, “Le joyau,” 20; Brou, “L'alleluia,” 47–50; and Maloy, “Old Hispanic Chant,” 17.
102.
See Brou, “L'alleluia,” 44–47.
103.
Respectively L8, fol. 246r, 59 notes, and S5, fol. 40r, 41 notes; L8, fol. 49r, 95 notes, and A30, fol. 65r, 118 notes (BL45, fol. 141v, has only one note); L8, fol. 90v, 64 notes, and A30, fol. 179v, 60+ notes (lacuna at opening); L8, fol. 188v, 79 notes.
104.
See Nadeau, “Pro sonorum diversitate,” 96–99.
105.
See Brou, “L'alleluia,” 45–46.
106.
“Laudes, hoc est alleluia, canere antiquum est Hebreorum; cuius expositio duorum uerborum interpretatione consistit, hoc est ‘laus dei’; de cuius mysterio Iohannis in Apocalypsin refert <se> spiritu reuelante uidisse et audisse uocem caelestis exercitus angelorum tamquam uocem aquarum multarum et tamquam uocem ualidorum tonitruum dicentium ‘alleluia.’ Ex quo nullus debet ambigere hoc laudis mysterium, si digna fide et deuotione celebretur, angelis esse coniunctum.”
107.
See Ekenberg, Cur cantatur?, and Fassler, Gothic Song, 31–34. On the role of the Holy Spirit, see Harrison, “Enchanting the Soul,” 214. See also Iversen, “Psallite regi nostro, psallite,” 13–14, and Iversen, Chanter avec les anges, 105–43 (on the Gloria as a song common to angels and men), 191–226 (on the Sanctus). Iversen takes Amalar of Metz as her chronological starting point.
108.
L8, fol. 139r, 87 notes.
109.
L8, fol. 60r, 110 notes, and A30, fol. 96r, 122+ notes (part of the melisma is faded).
110.
L8, fol. 218r, 74 notes, and T4, fol. 47r, 122 notes. BL45, fol. 34r, has just 12 notes.
111.
In L8 melodic repetition can be signaled, as here for B, by the symbol “d.”
112.
For example, fols. 29r, 30r, 38v, 40r, 41r, 45v, 47r.
113.
For example, fols. 76v, 202v, 233r.
114.
In Verba mea L8 has an AABBCCD melisma and PB99 notates only the first A. In Custodi me L8 has an AA′BBCCD melisma and PB99 notates only material related to the first A.

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