Hindemith's setting of Whitman's When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd has been called his only "profoundly American" work. However, the double entendre of its original subtitle, "An American Requiem," alluding to Brahms's Ein deutsches Requiem, mirrors Hindemith's ambivalence about his own postwar cultural identity. Although the work's intertextual links with the German polyphonic tradition extend back to Bach, "Taps" is the only overt "American" reference. But the phrase in quotation marks within the final subtitle, "A Requiem 'For those we love,' " is the incipit of a World War I hymn of commemoration, "For those we love within the veil." Hindemith quotes verbatim the melody for this hymn from the 1940 Episcopal Hymnal, which identifies it as "Gaza," a "Traditional Jewish Melody" (in turn derived from a Yigdal). The Requiem may be reinterpreted as a covert commentary on Whitman's text from the post-Holocaust perspective of Hindemith's conflicted personal and artistic circumstances.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Hans W. Heinsheimer, "Bus Stop in Waco," in Menagerie in F Sharp (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1947), 30
Heinsheimer
Bus Stop in Waco
30
Menagerie in F Sharp
1947
2
Michael A. Hovland, comp., Musical Settings ofAmerican Poetry: A Bibliography (West- port, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986)
Hovland
Musical Settings ofAmerican Poetry: A Bibliography
1986
Kim H. Kowalke, "Reading Whitman/Responding to America: Hin- demith, Weill, and Others," in Driven Into Paradise: The Musical Migration from Nazi Germany to the United States, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann and Christoph Wolff (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, forthcoming)
Kowalke
Reading Whitman/Responding to America: Hindemith, Weill, and Others
Driven Into Paradise: The Musical Migration from Nazi Germany to the United States
3
Aaron Copland, Music and Imagination (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952), 79, 104.
Copland
79
Music and Imagination
1952
4
Gilbert had described his Nocturne (1928) as a "symphonic mood after Walt Whit- man."
Richard Crawford's "Edward MacDowell: Musical Nationalism and an Amer- ican Tone Poet," this Journal 49 (1996): 528-6010.2307/831771
528
Arthur Mendel's review of the first of the Copland-Sessions Concerts of Contemporary Music in 1928, which included four of Blitzstein's Whitman songs under the title "Songs of a Coon Shouter."
Arthur Mendel, "First Fruits of the Season," Modern Music [January-February 1929]: 30-32
Mendel
January
30
Modern Music
1929
5
Aaron Copland and Vivian Perlis, Copland: 1900 Through 1942 (New York: St. Mar- tin's, 1984), 342
Copland
342
Copland: 1900 Through 1942
1984
Letter from André Kostelanetz to Copland, 18 December 1941, also quoted in ibid.
7
Howard Taubman, "Work by Hindemith in World Premiere," New York Times, 15 May 1946.
Taubman
15 May
New York Times
1946
8
Karl Knortz, Walt Whitman, der Dichter der Demokratie (Leipzig: F. Fleischer, 1899)
Knortz
Walt Whitman, der Dichter der Demokratie
1899
Richard H. Riethmueller, Walt Whitman and the Germans (Philadelphia: Americana Ger- manica Press, 1906)
Riethmueller
Walt Whitman and the Germans
1906
Johannes Schlaf's translation of Leaves of Grass was published in 1907 and quickly became the standard German edition
Literatur- geschichte of 1929
Literaturgeschichte: Die deutsche und die fremde Dichtung von den AnfÄngen bis zur Gegenwart, ed. Ludwig Goldscheider (Vienna: Phai- don, 1929)), 251
Goldscheider
251
Literaturgeschichte: Die deutsche und die fremde Dichtung von den AnfÄngen bis zur Gegenwart
1929
Walter Grünzweig, Walt Whitmann: Die deutschsprachige Rezeption als interkulturelles PhÄnomen (Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1991)
Grünzweig
Walt Whitmann: Die deutschsprachige Rezeption als interkulturelles PhÄnomen
1991
9
Letter from Willy and Ludwig Strecker to Hindemith, 9 April 1920
Paul Hindemith: Leben und Werk in Bild und Text, by Andrés Briner, Dieter Rexroth, and Giselher Schubert (Zurich: Atlantis Musikbuch-Verlag, 1988), 45
Briner
45
Paul Hindemith: Leben und Werk in Bild und Text
1988
David Metzer, "Reclaiming Walt: Marc Blitzstein's Whitman Settings," this Journal 48 (Summer 1995): 240-71, esp. 260-6210.2307/3128815
240
10
The "Drei Hymnen" were first performed in Frankfurt on 20 February 1920 by Helge Lindberg
Kurt von Fischer, "Hindemith's Early Songs for Voice and Piano," Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 109 (1982-83): 147-5910.2307/766141
147
12
Letter, on two postal cards, from Gertrud Hindemith to Jean Moran Myer, 13 Jan- uary 1946, Hindemith Collection, Yale Music Library, box 31, folder 185.
13
Letter from Hindemith to Emma and Fried Lübbecke, 18 January 1946
Selected Letters of Paul Hindemith, ed. and trans. Geoffrey Skelton (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1995), 193-95
Skelton
193
Selected Letters of Paul Hindemith
1995
Emma Lübbecke-Job was Hindemith's soloist of choice and dedicatee of Das Marienleben
14
Hindemith's own manuscript catalogue of his works, Paul Hindemith/Kompo- sitionen 1939-1954, completion of the fifth movement is listed as "February,"
15
David Neumeyer, The Music of Paul Hindemith (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986), 215-23
Neumeyer
215
The Music of Paul Hindemith
1986
Jonathan L. Turner, "Cadence and Form in Hindemith's 'Lilacs Requiem' " (Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 1996)
p. 32
16
"Dies ist No. 9, woraus Sie ersehen mögen, daß das Ganze ziemlich lang wird (30-40 Minuten). Es wird viel größer als ich ursprünglich plante. Ich schreibe nun die gesamte Ge- dichtreihe Whitman's 'When Lilacs last in the Door-Yard bloom'd' mit dem Untertitel 'An American Requiem.' " Letter in German from Hindemith to Associated Music Publishers, 21 January 1946
Charles Jacobs's introduction to the critical edition in Paul Hindemith: SÄmtliche Werke, Band VII, 2, ed. Charles Jacobs (Mainz: B. Schott's Söhne, 1986), ix
Jacobs
2
ix
Paul Hindemith: SÄmtliche Werke, Band VII
1986
17
John S. Wannamaker, "The Musical Settings of the Poetry of Walt Whitman: A Study of Theme, Structure, and Prosody" (Ph.D. diss., University of Min- nesota, 1971), 416
Parkes V. Jelley's When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd for baritone soloist, chorus, and orchestra (master's thesis composition, Eastman School of Music, 1932)
18
Note in Italian, signed "P.H.," for the program book of the European premiere of the Requiem in Perugia (Sagra Musicale dell'Umbria, Chiesa di S. Pietro, 26 September 1948)
19
Robert K. Martin, ed., The Continuing Presence of Walt Whitman: The Life After the Life (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992)
Martin
The Continuing Presence of Walt Whitman: The Life After the Life
1992
Edwin Haviland Miller, ed., A Century of Whitman Criticism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969)
Miller
A Century of Whitman Criticism
1969
20
Robert D. Fanner, Walt Whitman and Opera (Philadelphia: University of Pennsyl- vania Press, 1951), 154-59
Fanner
154
Walt Whitman and Opera
1951
Fanner states that "the lyric can be shown to follow with sur- prising closeness the sonata form upon which most classical symphonies are based" (p. 155)
21
Letter from Hindemith to Gertrud, 25 March 1938
no. 172 in Paul Hindemith, Das private Logbuch: Briefe an seine Frau Gertrud, ed. Friederike Becker and Giselher Schubert (Mainz and Munich: Piper-Schott, 1995), 268
Hindemith
268
Das private Logbuch: Briefe an seine Frau Gertrud
1995
22
Paul Hindemith, A Composer's World: Horizons and Limitations (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952), 198.
Hindemith
198
A Composer's World: Horizons and Limitations
1952
23
Letter from Hindemith to Gertrud, 29 March 1940
Hindemith, Das private Logbuch, 440-41.
440
24
letter to the author, 5 August 1996
Günther Metz, "Hindemith und die Alte Musik," in Alte Musik im 20. Jahr- hundert: Wandlungen und Formen ihrer Rezeption, ed. Giselher Schubert, Frankfurter Studien 5 (Mainz: Schott, 1995), 93-112
Metz
Hindemith und die Alte Musik
93
5
Alte Musik im 20. Jahrhundert: Wandlungen und Formen ihrer Rezeption
1995
Hermann Danuser, "Der Klassiker als Janus? Wand- lungen in Paul Hindemiths Bach-VerstÄndnis," in Alte Musik als Ästhetische Gegenwart: Bach, HÄndel, Schütz. Bericht über den internationalen musikwissenschaftlichen Kongrefß Stuttgart 1985, ed. Dietrich Berke and Dorothee Hanemann, 2 vols. (Kassel: Birenreiter, 1987), 1:190-98
Danuser
Der Klassiker als Janus? Wandlungen in Paul Hindemiths Bach-Verstdndnis
190
1
Alte Musik als Ästhetische Gegenwart: Bach, HÄndel, Schütz. Bericht über den internationalen musikwissenschaftlichen Kongrefß Stuttgart 1985
1987
25
Nicolas Slonimsky's Music Since 1900 (New York: Schirmer, 1994) does, however, refer to the work, without comment, as When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd, "American Requiem" (p. 514)
Slonimsky
514
Music Since 1900
1994
26
Taubman, "Work by Hindermith in World Premiere."
"In Search of the 'Good' Hindemith Legacy," New York Times, 8 January 1995
8 January
New York Times
1995
27
Der Lindberghflug, composed jointly with Kurt Weill in 1929
28
Walt Whitman, "Our Old Feuillage," Leaves of Grass, lines 29 and 38.
Whitman
Our Old Feuillage
Leaves of Grass
29
Letter from Brahms to Carl Martin Reinthaler, 9 October 1867, in Johannes Brahms im Briefwechsel (Berlin: Deutschen Brahms-Gesellschaft, 1908), 3:10
10
3
Johannes Brahms im Briefwechsel
1908
Michael Musgrave in Brahms: "A German Requiem" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 1
Musgrave
1
Brahms: "A German Requiem"
1996
31
Shaw's recording is Telarc CD-80132 (1987)
Julius Herford and Robert Shaw's pro- gram notes for the world premiere are ambiguous on this point: "The middle section, a bar- itone recitative, centers in the hymn 'For those we love.' The form of the chorale is chosen at the moment when the poet speaks of the 'knowledge and thought of death.' On the fermatas of the orchestral chorale, the baritone interjects his melodic phrases" (Hindemith Collection, Yale Music Library, box 6, folder 185)
Shaw's later published commentaries (or in introductory remarks at rehearsals and performances) demonstrates that he was aware that the hymn tune was not Hindemith's invention. The Whitman entry in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (ed. Friedrich Blume [Kassel: BÄrenreiter, 1949-86])
Blume
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
1949
Hindemith entries in both the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and the New Grove Dictionary of American Music (ed. H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie (London and New York: Mac- millan, 1986))
Hitchcock
New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and the New Grove Dictionary of American Music
1986
Richard Taruskin's "In Search of the 'Good' Hindemith Legacy," a long feature in the New York Times, 8 January 1995
Taruskin
8 January
New York Times
1995
Shaw's five-day choral workshop on the Re- quiem, also refers to the work throughout as "Hindemith's 'Requiem for Those We Love.' "
32
Companion to the Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America (New York: The Church Pension Fund, 1940), 531-32
531
Companion to the Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America
1940
The Imperishable Word (London: J. Clarke, 1912)
The Imperishable Word
1912
33
Luther Noss, Paul Hindemith in the United States [Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989], 162
Noss
162
Paul Hindemith in the United States
1989
34
Paul-Hindemith-Institut, no. 34/307.
35
"Vor deinen Thron tret ich hiermit" (with the same tune as "Praise God, from whom all blessings flow"), to highly expressive effect in his Trauermusik for viola and string orchestra (1936)
letter to Gertrud, 21 January 1936
Hindemith, Das private Logbuch, 128
128
Schwanendreher (1935)
36
Companion to the Hymnal, 154
154
"when singing the hymn, the final chord may remain E minor until in the last stanza." The Hymnal credits permission to utilize the tune to the 1931 enlarged edition of Songs of Praise, first published in 1925 by Oxford University Press, with Ralph Vaughan Williams as one of its two music editors
Gaza tune, "adapted from an Ancient Jewish Melody," appears in the volume, but as the melody of hymn no. 650 "Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright," text by George Herbert (1593-1633)
The Public School Hymn Book had been published in London by Novello in 1920
37
Baer's anthology, the Yigdal text appears with several variants of the same melody: nos. 988 and 989 in part 4, "GesÄnge für das Neujahr und Versöhnungsfest," under the head- ing "GesÄnge ffir den Neujahrs Abend"
Abraham Baer, Ba-al T'Fillah. Der practische Vor- beter. VollstÄndige Sammlung der gottesdienstlichen GesÄnge und Recitative der Israeliten nach polnischen, deutschen (aschk'nasischen) und portugiesischen (sephardischen) Weisen nebst allen den Gottesdienst betreffenden rituellen Vorschriften und GebrÄuchen (Gothenburg: (Druck von Breit- kopf und Hirtel), 1877), 220
Baer
220
Ba-al T'Fillah. Der practische Vorbeter. VollstÄndige Sammlung der gottesdienstlichen GesÄnge und Recitative der Israeliten nach polnischen, deutschen (aschk'nasischen) und portugiesischen (sephardischen) Weisen nebst allen den Gottesdienst betreffenden rituellen Vorschriften und GebrÄuchen
1877
Jewish, Spanish- Basque as well as in Slavic song." He notes motivic similarities with both the Zionist hymn "Hatikva"
Jewish Music in Its Historical Develop- ment [New York: Henry Holt, 1929], 221)
Dort wo die Zeder
221
Jewish Music in Its Historical Development
1929
No. 760 is commonly known as "Leoni," after Hazzan Meyer Leoni (ca. 1740-1800)
Macy Nulman, Concise Encyclopedia of Jewish Music [New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975], 150-51
Nulman
150
Concise Encyclopedia of Jewish Music
1975
Jakob Schönberg, Die traditionellen Ge- sÄnge des israelitischen Gottesdienstes in Deutschland: Musikwissenschaftliche Untersuchung der in A. Baers "Baal T'fillah" gesammelten Synagogengesfinge (Nuremberg: Erich Spandel, 1925), 48-52
Schönberg
48
Die traditionellen GesÄnge des israelitischen Gottesdienstes in Deutschland: Musikwissenschaftliche Untersuchung der in A. Baers "Baal T'fillah" gesammelten Synagogengesfinge
1925
Gershon Ephros, ed., Cantorial Anthology of Traditional and Modern Synagogue Music, 6 vols. (New York: Bloch, 1929), 1:51, 4:186
Ephros
51
1
Cantorial Anthology of Traditional and Modern Synagogue Music
1929
38
Musgrave, Brahms: "A German Requiem," 24-31
24
39
Baer's anthology had been reissued several times by J. Kauffmann in Frankfurt am Main (1883, 189?)
J. Bulka in Nürnberg (1930)
Hindemith's Nachlass is an Anthology offewish Music, compiled and edited by Chemjo Vinaver (New York: Edward B. Marks Music, 1955)
Hindemith
Nachlass is an Anthology offewish Music
1955
40
Aaron Copland, Our New Music: Leading Composers in Europe and America (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1941), 115.
Copland
115
Our New Music: Leading Composers in Europe and America
1941
41
Letter from Hindemith in Mexico to Willy Strecker, 15 July 1946
Paul Hindemith Briefe, ed. Dieter Rexroth (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1982), 237-43
Rexroth
237
Paul Hindemith Briefe
1982
Skelton, Selected Letters, 196-200
196
42
Skelton, Selected Letters, 197-98
197
Elsewhere Hindemith again protested against these "begging and toadying letters" (letter to Ludwig and Willy Strecker, 29 August 1945; trans- lation in ibid., 189)
43
Letter from Gertrud to Luther Noss, 14 April 1945
Geoffrey Skelton, Paul Hindemith: The Man Behind the Music (London: Victor Gollancz, 1977), 216
Skelton
216
Paul Hindemith: The Man Behind the Music
1977
44
Skelton, Paul Hindemith, 214-17
214
Skelton makes no mention of this, but in an unpublished letter to Hindemith of 2 October 1945
Giselher Schubert replied on 21 January 1997
Skelton, Paul Hindemith, 240
240
45
Letter from Paul and Gertrud Hindemith to Ludwig and Willy Strecker, 29 August 1945
Skelton, Selected Letters, 191
191
46
Strecker to Paul Hindemith, 2 October 1945.
47
Letter from Gertrud Hindemith to Luther Noss, 6 October 1964
Hindemith Collection, Yale Music Library, box 6, folder 185
48
Paul Hindemith Collection, Yale Music Library, box 21, folder 340
49
Skelton, Paul Hindemith, 219-20.
219
50
Noss, Paul Hindemith, 123-24.
123
51
Neumeyer, Music of Paul Hindemith, 216.
216
52
Letter from Hindemith to Oscar Cox, 14 December 1956
Skel- ton, Selected Letters, 233-35
233
53
Hindemith quoted by Gertrud in a letter to Oscar Cox, 28 September 1959, Paul Hindemith Collection, Yale Music Library, box 6, folder 185.
54
Harold Schonberg, "Concerts," The Musical Digest 27 (July 1946): 27
Schonberg
July
27
27
The Musical Digest
1946
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 9 November 1847
9 November
Brooklyn Daily Eagle
1847
Charles Hamm, Music in the New World [New York: W. W. Norton, 1983], 206-7
Hamm
206
Music in the New World
1983
55
letter to the Atlanta Symphony Chorus of 30 January 1974
"Robert Shaw's Letters," notes to Shaw's recording of the Requiem, Telarc CD-80132 [1987], 18
56
Letter from Gertrud to Oscar Cox, 30 April 1959, Paul Hindemith Collection, Yale Music Library, box 6, folder 185.
57
Howard Taubman, "Hindemith Says Composers Are Being Spoiled by Dependence on Prizes," New York Times, 20 March 1960
Taubman
20 March
New York Times
1960
58
Virgil Thomson, "On Being American," New York Herald Tribune, 25 January 1948.
Thomson
25 January
New York Herald Tribune
1948
59
Noss, Paul Hin- demith, 154
154
60
Hugo Puetter, "Zum ersten Male in Deutschland: Paul Hindemiths Requiem," Me- los: Zeitschrift für neue Musik 15 (December 1948): 341-42
Puetter
December
341
15
Melos: Zeitschrift für neue Musik
1948
61
Skelton in Paul Hindemith, 231
Slonimsky, Music Since 1900, 519
519
62
Letter from Willy Strecker to Paul Hindemith, 16 August 1946, Paul-Hindemith- Institut
Skelton, Paul Hindemith, 220
220
63
Letter from Willy Strecker to Paul Hindemith, 17 December 1946, Paul-Hindemith- Institut.
64
Letter from Hindemith to Willy Strecker, 20 January 1947, Paul-Hindemith-Institut
Rexroth, Paul Hindemith Briefe, 244-45
244
Skelton, Paul Hindemith, 225
225
Skelton, Se- lected Letters, 201
201
"The Sounding Board: The Trans- planted Composer," Los Angeles Times, 14 May 1950
14 May
Los Angeles Times
1950
65
Claudia Maurer Zenck, "Zwischen Boykott und Anpassung an den Charakter der Zeit: über die Schwierigkeiten eines deutschen Komponisten mit dem Dritten Reich," Hindemith-Jahrbuch 9 (1980): 65-129
Zenck
65
9
Hindemith-Jahrbuch
1980
Zenck asserts, for example, that "am 17. Januar 1936 legte Hindemith in der Hochschule als Lehrer das Treuegelöbnis auf den Führer" (p. 95)
Peter Girth and Albrecht Dümling, eds., Entartete Musik: Dokumentation und Kommentar zur Düsseldorfer Ausstellung von 1938, 3d ed. (Düsseldorf: dkv-der kleine verlag, 1993), 219
Girth
3
219
Entartete Musik: Dokumentation und Kommentar zur Düsseldorfer Ausstellung von 1938
1993
Zenck also documents the impact of Gertrud's being "half-Jewish" on Hindemith's career at the Hochschule (pp. 104- 6)
Michael Kater, The Twisted Muse (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), passim
Kater
The Twisted Muse
1997
66
Hindemith's "greetings from this land of limited impossibilities" were addressed to Willy Strecker during the second tour, 21 February 1938
Skelton in Paul Hin- demith, 158
158
67
Hindemith announces his plan to "take my leave in sweet accord" in the postscript of a letter from Gertrud to Willy Strecker at Schott, 14 March 1937, in which she writes: "I know exactly what it means to him not to be able to continue working in and for Germany. Poor man!"
Skelton, Paul Hindemith, 140
140
68
Letter from Hindemith to Gertrud, 14 July 1940
no. 243 in Hindemith, Dasprivate Logbuch, 468
468
69
Letter from Hindemith to Emma and Fried Lübbecke, 17 February 1941
Skelton, Selected Letters, 173-75
173
70
Letter from Hindemith to Willy Strecker, 16 February 1941
Skelton, Selected Letters, 173
173
71
Journal entry, 8 April 1937
Noss in Paul Hindemith, 20
72
Letter from Hindemith to Gertrud, 11 April 1937
no. 87 in Hindemith, Dasprivate Logbuch, 167
167
73
Letter from Hindemith to Hugo Strecker, 9 November 1940
Noss in Paul Hindemith, 157
157
74
Letter from Hindemith to Willy Strecker, 27 September 1941
Skelton, Selected Letters, 178
178
75
Letter from Hindemith to Heinrich Straumann, 30 November 1949
Skel- ton in Paul Hindemith, 241
241
Note that Skelton titles part 4 of his biography, covering the years 1947-63, "Dual Nationality."
76
Letter from Hindemith to Oscar Cox, 9 March 1955
Skelton, Selected Letters, 224-25
224
77
Paul Hindemith, Johann Sebastian Bach: Heritage and Obligation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1952), 26-27
Hindemith
26
Johann Sebastian Bach: Heritage and Obligation
1952
Skelton, Selected Letters, 225-28
225
Hermann Danuser also sees the Bach speech principally as a "Versuch einer eigenen Stand- ortbestimmung" ("Der Klassiker als Janus," p. 194)
Stephen Hinton, "Hindemith, Bach, and the Melancholy of Obligation," forthcoming in Bach Perspectives 3: Creative Re- sponses to the Music of J. S. Bach, from Mozart to Webern, ed. Michael Marissen (Lincoln: Uni- versity of Nebraska Press, 1998)
Hinton
Hindemith, Bach, and the Melancholy of Obligation
Bach Perspectives 3: Creative Responses to the Music of J. S. Bach, from Mozart to Webern
1998
Hindemith's preface to the revised edition of Das Marienleben (1948) anticipates the formulation of several key elements in his Bach-Bild
78
Hindemith, Johann Sebastian Bach, 39.
39
79
Ibid., 41
41
Friedrich Nietzsche's characterization of Brahms comes from the "Zweite Nachschrift" of Der Fall Wagner: Ein Musikanten-Problem (Leipzig: C. G. Naumann, 1888), 50
80
Copland, Our New Music, 115.
115
81
Theodor W. Adorno, "Ad vocem Hindemith: Eine Dokumentation," Impromptus (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1970), 51-87
Adorno
Ad vocem Hindemith: Eine Dokumentation
51
Impromptus
1970
Rudolf Stephan, "Adorno und Hindemith: Zum Verstindnis einer schwierigen Beziehung," in Adorno und die Musik, ed. Otto Kolleritsch (Graz: Universal Edition, 1979), 180-201
Stephan
Adorno und Hindemith: Zum Verstindnis einer schwierigen Beziehung
180
in Adorno und die Musik
1979
Reinhold Brinkmann, "über Paul Hindemiths Rede Sterbende GewÄsser," Hindemith-Jahrbuch 13 (1984): 71-90
Brinkmann
71
13
Hindemith-Jahrbuch
1984
"Ad vocem Hindemith" (p. 87)
87
82
n. 18 above
83
"Letzter Auftritt," Mathis der Maler, English version by Walter Ducloux, edited by the author (New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1967), 56
Ducloux
"Letzter Auftritt
56
Mathis der Maler
1967
Friederike Becker, "Des Kunstlers Entsagung: Die 'Dichtung'Mathis der Maler, ihre Entstehungsgeschichte und einige kritische Anmerkungen zur Legendenbildung um Paul Hindemiths Libretto," in Bio- graphische Konstellation und künstlerisches Handeln, ed. Giselher Schubert, Frankfurter Studien 6 (Mainz: Schott, 1997), 128-57
Becker
Des Kunstlers Entsagung: Die 'Dichtung'Mathis der Maler, ihre Entstehungsgeschichte und einige kritische Anmerkungen zur Legendenbildung um Paul Hindemiths Libretto
128
6
Biographische Konstellation und künstlerisches Handeln
1997
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