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ultimate-causation

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Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2017) 47 (2): 127–163.
Published: 01 April 2017
... concepts and practices in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, it contributes to a growing literature that undermines the historical division between proximate and ultimate causation in biology. © 2017 by the Regents of the University of California 2017 coevolution insect-plant interactions...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2018) 48 (2): 123–179.
Published: 01 April 2018
... the solar system was not looked upon as a legitimate scientific question simply because the ultimate fate of the world was a matter of theology, not of calculation. Thus, when Jacques Cassini, in his Elemens d Astronomie, rhetor- ically asked, can one be assured that the orbits that the planets...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2017) 47 (5): 602–628.
Published: 01 November 2017
... the object before him as an individual organism, or a composite of individuals into a larger, looser entity such as a colony or state, was no mere matter of semantics. What made an organism an organism, and not a mere mechanism, for many thinkers in the nineteenth century, was the mutual causation...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2017) 47 (1): 1–41.
Published: 01 February 2017
... understand evo- lution s apparent defeat of the Second Law (this I have never followed up as I intended); and there were other grandiose schemes, such as finding math- ematical descriptors of the complexity of patterns, again with evolution as the ultimate goal.12 This letter captures three issues dominating...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2015) 45 (2): 273–302.
Published: 01 April 2015
... reality, or fundamentality, or ultimate- ness to the germ or any part of an organism, in exactly the same sense you must predicate reality, or fundamentality, or ultimateness to the completed and whole organism52 Yet, organismal doctrine did not entail the acceptance of vitalist stances. For Ritter...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2011) 41 (1): 104–111.
Published: 01 February 2011
... causation were assimilated into a theory centered on microbes as the ultimate source of disease. Those elements sanitarian ideas about the importance of clean bodies and clean air were integral to the synthesis that continues to govern our understanding of disease. As Barnes puts it, Miasmas and geology no...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2010) 40 (3): 279–317.
Published: 01 August 2010
... as a desirable model within biology.12 This paper addresses three problems that organismic biologists believed were in need of solutions in order to succeed in their struggle with the molecular biologists: Were ideas of reductionism and causation developed in the physical sciences applicable to...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2008) 38 (2): 259–301.
Published: 01 May 2008
...-level radiation and cancer effects linear non-threshold model cancer causation uncertain science and politics technology critics and science activism IOAN NA S E M E N D E FE R I Legitimating a Nuclear Critic: John Gofman, Radiation Safety, and Cancer Risks ABSTRACT Whether low-level ionizing...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2008) 38 (1): 45–75.
Published: 01 February 2008
... to regard them as if designed, but because they are natural prod- ucts, the notion of design must remain metaphorical. Indeed, Kant s invocation of final causation seems itself to have been analogical: the organic must be explained as if it were constituted as teleological. Teleological judgment is...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (2008) 38 (1): 109–152.
Published: 01 February 2008
... 2/12/08 5:27 PM Page 111 knowledge, but to de-stabilize and deny it, particularly by challenging the sci- entific evidence that linked tobacco to adverse health effects and questioning whether that evidence was sufficient to prove causation.3 Gerald Markowitz, David Rosner, and David Michaels have...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1999) 30 (1): 279–306.
Published: 01 January 1999
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1998) 28 (2): 301–336.
Published: 01 January 1998
... direct me to an underlying philosophical struggle between a mechanistic philosophy that strictly separated efficient and final causation, and a movement to rejoin cause with purpose (? 1). Franklin's fusion of pragmatism with teleology resonated with this very sore point in contemporary French...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1998) 28 (2): 253–299.
Published: 01 January 1998
... Campbell's and Mayr's notion of "downward causation," below. 12. Ibid., 38. 13. Ibid., 39, 44-45. UNIFICATION IN PHYSICS 259 Polanyi formulated the argument about the conceptual gap between two levels of description in terms of definition: "Lower levels do not lack a bear ing on higher levels; they define...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1996) 26 (2): 347–403.
Published: 01 January 1996
... sciences.6 The latter dominated with the emergence of biometrics, based on the statistical concept of correlation con sidered as a generalization of causation. For Volterra, statistical and proba bilistic methods could be very useful, and less reliable, than infinitesimal analysis: he saw mathematical...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1993) 24 (1): 1–40.
Published: 01 January 1993
... influenced the practice of medicine only in an indirect manner."12 How did research oriented to the solution of a specific medical problem?research focused on a sin gle disease, its causation by a specific microorganism and the immune reactions to it?lead primarily to major biological discoveries? How did...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1990) 20 (2): 265–311.
Published: 01 January 1990
... from Iowa, had a different, ultimately unsuc cessful, vision of the physics of the ocean in comparison with the members of the east coast elite who began studies similar to his nearly a decade later. Dr Ritter's laboratory at La Jolla The Marine Biological Association of San Diego came about as the...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1989) 19 (2): 349–401.
Published: 01 January 1989
... in his elevation theory of mountain formation, which retained the Wernerian historical ap proach but replaced Wernerian chemical causation with his own variety of physical causation. So, concludes Laudan, "The [Werneri an] program that had directed geological research for half a century was replaced...
Journal Articles
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1979) 10: 225–269.
Published: 01 January 1979
... Problem of Causation in Modern Science," in Science Theory and Man, pp. 43, 50. 159 Einstein to Schrödinger, 31 May 1928 Einstein to Schrödinger, 9 August 1939 Schrödinger to Einstein, 18 November 1950 Einstein to Schrödinger, 22 December 1950 Letters on Wave Mechanics, trans, and ed. Martin...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences (1976) 7: 125–160.
Published: 01 January 1976
.... Planck, "Vom Relativen zum Absoluten," op. cit (note 56), p. 153. 71 lbid. "Kausalgesetz und Willensfreiheit," (1923), in Wege . . . , op. cit. (note 55), p. 128. James Murphy in M. Planck, Where is Science Going? (New York, 1932): "Causation and Free Will: The Problem Stated," pp. 107–140...