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radiation

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Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2015; 45114–48 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2015.45.1.14
Published: 01 February 2015
... safety guidelines were sufficient to protect workers and the general population from dangerous exposures to ionizing radiation. In the 1950s, mounting concerns about the hazards of low-level radiation exposure, particularly from atomic weapons fallout, raised the stakes of understanding and protecting...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 492151–193 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.2.151
Published: 01 April 2019
...Kendrick Oliver The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation—an inflection point in postwar cosmology—has not lacked chroniclers, but few have drawn deeply upon the available archival record. Many accounts emphasize the serendipitous manner in which the radiation was detected. This...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2015; 454513–548 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2015.45.4.513
Published: 01 September 2015
... research center for accelerator physics, particle physics, and photon science. The last is an umbrella term for research using synchrotron radiation and, in later years, free-electron laser. Synchrotron radiation emerged initially as a peripheral part of the laboratory activities but grew to become a...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2015; 453447–492 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2015.45.3.447
Published: 01 June 2015
... research center for accelerator physics, particle physics, and photon science. The last is an umbrella term for research using synchrotron radiation and, in later years, free-electron laser. Synchrotron radiation emerged initially as a peripheral part of the laboratory activities but grew to become a...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2015; 452217–272 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2015.45.2.217
Published: 01 April 2015
...Olof Hallonsten The synchrotron radiation activities at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (formerly Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) started out in 1972 as a small-scale Stanford University project. The project gradually grew to become one of the first national centers for synchrotron...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2017; 473349–388 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2017.47.3.349
Published: 01 June 2017
...Marsha L. Richmond With the onset of the atomic age in 1945, geneticists increasingly spoke out about how nuclear fallout and radiation impacted heredity and reproduction. The scholarship discussing post–World War II activism focuses almost exclusively on males, with little attention given to women...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2008; 382259–301 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2008.38.2.259
Published: 01 May 2008
...Ioanna Semendeferi Whether low-level ionizing radiation has an effect on humans has been a polarizing issue for the last fifty years. The epicenter of this controversy has been the validity of the linear non-threshold dose-response model, according to which any amount of radiation, however small...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2009; 392171–218 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2009.39.2.171
Published: 01 May 2009
...Alison Kraft This study investigates how, in the late 1940s and 1950s, fears of nuclear accidents and nuclear warfare shaped postwar radiobiology. The new and intense forms of radiation generated by nuclear reactor technology, and which would be released in the event of a nuclear war, created...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2008; 383353–404 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2008.38.3.353
Published: 01 August 2008
...Daniela Monaldi Following the discovery of mesotrons (intermediate-mass particles) in cosmic radiation in the 1930s, a group of physicists originating in Italy participated in a series of experiments designed to permit the observation of the spontaneous decay of elementary particles. The...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2003; 332299–335 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsps.2003.33.2.299
Published: 01 March 2003
...Arne Schirrmacher ©© Regents of the University of California ARNE SCHIRRMACHER * Experimenting theory: The proofs of Kirchhoff s radiation law before and after Planck HSPS, Volume 33, Part 2, pages 299-335. ISSN 0890-9997. ©2003 by The Regents of the University of California. All rights...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2007; 37suppl35–72 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsps.2007.37.s.35
Published: 01 March 2007
...Doogab Yi This paper examines the contested "biological" meaning of the genetic effects of radiation amid nuclear fear during the 1950s and 1960s. In particular, I explore how the question of irreversibility, a question that eventually led to the discovery of DNA repair, took shape in the context...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 1983; 132375–400 doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/27757520
Published: 01 January 1983
... 1945 (MUC-GTS memoranda, Seaborg files, LBL). 16 Norman Hilberry's Memorandum MUC-NH-2074, 4 Jun 1945 (Seaborg files, LBL). EOL 29:36. Allison to Seaborg, 15 Aug 1945 17 Lawrence, "Recommended program for the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley," 15 Sep 1945 (EOL 22:10). 18 Scientific...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 503248–301 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.3.248
Published: 28 May 2020
... the quantum theory of matter and radiation.30 In fact, Wataghin was one of several young physicists at the time who were studying theoretical physics and were keen to harness the new theory of quantum mechanics to study matter on increasingly smaller scales, reaching the level of the atomic nucleus...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-225–30 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.25
Published: 02 April 2020
... 1981 article on the discovery of the transistor at Bell Labs in the late 1940s, Barton J. Bernstein s 1982 essay on the 1954 security case of the physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer, Robert Seidel s 1983 study on the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory after World War II, and Allan Needell s 1983 paper on the...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-241–49 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.41
Published: 02 April 2020
... an important player in the histories of several fields, including nuclear weapons design, gravitational radiation research, anti-ballistic missile defense, Vietnam-era counterinsurgency, and superconducting computing.19 A journal dedicated to the history of science-as-part-of-society is just more...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-2209–216 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.209
Published: 02 April 2020
.... Indeed, Condon was a quantum theorist who rubbed shoulders with Ernest Lawrence and others active in the development of nuclear physics before WWII. During the war, he aided in the effort to develop radar by helping to organize MIT s Radiation Laboratory and by devising equipment to isolate fissionable...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-274–80 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.74
Published: 02 April 2020
... the transfer of technique is of as much interest toHSPS as (if small things can be compared with great) it was to the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1930s, we wish to declare and trumpet forth that biophysics, radiation biology, bio- chemistry, molecular biology, genetics, and so on, historically...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-281–89 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.81
Published: 02 April 2020
... 4. Robert W. Seidel, Accelerating Science: The Postwar Transformation of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, HSPS 13, no. 2 (1982): 375 400; Allan A. Needell, Nuclear Reactors and the Founding of Brookhaven National Laboratory, HSPS 14, no. 1 (1983): 93 122; John Krige and Dominique Pestre, The...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-231–40 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.31
Published: 02 April 2020
... at Berkeley s Radiation Laboratory, or oceanographers maneuvered between anti-submarine research and investigations of sea-floor spreading all while aboard naval vessels the intellectual and infrastructural entanglements 21. Forman, Behind quantum electronics (ref. 16), 228 29. 22. Forman, Behind...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2012; 424283–321 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2012.42.4.283
Published: 01 September 2012
... electrons in the Earth’s radiation field. In order to conduct the test before the October 1958 nuclear test moratorium, the military borrowed International Geophysical Year equipment and used the program as cover for the clandestine nuclear tests. Though the experiment determined that an electron shield...